Run the commands:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
This will download and install the latest versions of all programs originally installed. This will undoubtedly involve several hundred files.
It's very unlikely that a default fresh-from-the-CD version of Linux will have everything you want. For one thing, the CD only installs things from Ubuntu's "Main" and "Restricted" repositories; unless you are running a server or something which must be ultra-stable, you'll probably want to add "Universe", "Multiverse", and probably the "Backports" and "Proposed" repository sets. Consolidated and stripped of comments, your sources.list file really only needs five lines:
Here's a partial list of things that (a) I use, which (b) are not included with standard Ubuntu. Your mileage will, of course, vary. Use your package manager of choice (
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty main restricted universe multiverse deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-updates main restricted universe multiverse deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security main restricted universe multiverse deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse ## main = pure, supported ## restricted = impure, supported ## universe = pure, not supported ## multiverse = impure, not supported
synaptic) to install them:
maketo compile and install them.
The ESC key is used quite frequently by several programs — particularly editors like Emacs and Vi. The CapsLock key is almost never used by anybody. Unfortunately, the makers of keyboards decided to put the useless CapsLock right next to the /A/ key, easily accessible to the left little finger, while the vital ESC key is way the hellandgone up in the corner.
Here's an easy way to switch the function of those two keys; it's
surprising how handy it is to have ESC on a closer key. Just create a
file in your home directory called
containing these four lines:
remove Lock = Caps_Lock keycode 0x42 = Escape keycode 0x09 = Caps_Lock add Lock = Caps_Lock
That's all there is to it. The next time the system starts up, the two keys will have their definitions reversed.
In general, you can use the
xev program to find out
keycode numbers and function names — just hit keys and write 'em
down. For instance, one could create useful definitions for the
"Windows" and "List" keys down by the spacebar, as well as any
"internet" or "multimedia" keys which might be attached to your
Due to the way it is copyrighted, the Adobe Acrobat Reader is no
longer part of the Ubuntu distribution. The free software replacement
for it (
evince) works quite well, but you might like to
have the "real thing" in addition. Here's how.
tar xf AdobeReader_enu-7.0.9-1.i386.tar.gz
AdobeReaderand issue the command
convertutility (part of
ImageMagick) to create a 48x48 .PNG file from any image you have on hand:
convert -geometry 48x48 myfile.jpg myicon.png
myicon.pngin any convenient directory. Gnome, unfortunately, seems to have its icon directories hard-coded, so copy the new icon to somewhere Gnome will recognize:
sudo cp myicon.png /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/emblems/
No commonly used Linux distributions include certain features of
multimedia support because of legal or copyright restrictions. If you
have ascertained that these are legal in your jurisdiction, then you
can add them — particularly the ability to play commercial DVDs.
One of many sites that show you how to do it is
http://nococomp.com/?p=18. Note that if you already have everything
else, you can install decss (the DVD decryption module) without having
/dev/apt/sources.list. Just execute these two
wget http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/pool/feisty/free/i386/libdvdcss2_1.2.9-2medibuntu2+build1_i386.deb sudo dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.9-2medibuntu2+build1_i386.deb
Wgetis a command line tool to fetch a file over the internet.
Dpkginstalls an existing
.debfile, so this technique will work with any other
.debfile you may find, although you should ensure that the file was packaged specifically for Ubuntu and not for generic Debian.)