September LBSIG Meeting
- The original Grub has been replaced with Grub2 in Ubuntu 9.10.
(It's actually called v1.97 at the moment.)
- There are significant changes to file layout and many more
- At the moment (Alpha 5), Karmic installation does not
automatically add Grub menu entries for other bootable partitions.
When you re-boot after installation, it looks as if Karmic is the only
thing on the computer. Relax — they're there, but you have to
manually add them to the menu.
- Unlike Grub-1, you cannot change the boot menu by simply
editing /boot/grub/menu.lst. To get the "dual-boot"
entries, from a 9.10 command prompt issue the following:
- This will generate a new
/boot/grub/grub.cfg file with
entries for all bootable images (Windows or Linux) found. Note that
the "extra" entries will be in ascending order, so the one you
probably want (other than the Karmic entry, which will be first) will
be the last one in the boot list.
- If you are maintaining two versions (Jaunty and Karmic, e.g.),
then if you update Jaunty to have a new version of the kernel, you'll
have to boot into Karmic and re-run
update-grub to have
it appear (last) in the boot list.
- KDE 4.3.1
- The people in charge have given up on their bright idea of
replacing Konqueror with
latter will be available, but Konqueror will be the default.
- OpenOffice now has "KDE Integration" — that is, OO will have
the same "Oxygen" look and feel as the other KDE apps.
- A Gnome system settings application, so you can change
fonts, widget style, etc. for Gnome apps running under KDE.
None worth mentioning.
Raster formats store a color value for each pixel. These can be
1-bit (black and white), 8-bit (256 total colors), 16-bit (64K),
24-bit (16M), or 48-bit (256T). These can be lossless or lossy,
depending on the compression algorithm used.
- JPEG — 24-bit, lossy compression, small,
good for distributing photographs. Loses more quality every time it
is edited, so should not be used for images which will be
- GIF — 256 mapped colors, very small,
lossless compression, good for icons. Can't handle continuous tones.
Has transparency. Web-OK.
- PNG — 24-bit, lossless compression, big,
excellent for photographs. Has transparency. Web-OK.
- TIFF — Very flexible with many variations.
Everything from 1-bit (black and white) to 48-bit, lossless
compression, huge. Has transparency. Preferred by commercial printers
and OCR software. Can have more than one page per file.
- BMP — Microsoft-only, large. Web-OK.
- RAW — Not a "real" format; each camera has
a different one. Often has more color depth than JPG.
My basic recommendation is to store original images (scans,
photographs) as PNG or possibly TIFF. Since your camera won't do
that, immediately convert the JPG to PNG for storage and
editing. Do all your editing and retouching on the retained
full-resolution PNG file, and then make a JPG file as a "final" copy
if you need something smaller. This can be generalized: No matter
what editing programs you use, never create a JPG
unless you know it will never be modified.
Vector files are kept as mathematical formulas, not as dot
images. Vector images cannot be displayed; pixels are generated only
when ready to display or print. As such, they are infinitely scalable
until they are converted to raster. Most vector formats are
proprietary (e.g., Corel Draw), but by far the most common are the
.TTF (Truetype) or PFx (Postscript) scalable fonts.
- SVG — Large, very compressible (really an
ASCII XML file). Open-source. Web-OK.
- CGM — an ANSI standard but now obsolete.
- DXF — Autocad native format.
- Postscript — vector format which can have
embedded raster sections, called EPS (encapsulated PS).
- PDF — can contain vector and raster
(usually JPG) sections.
- DjVu — free alternative to PDF. Much
smaller files while remaining readable. Often used to distribute
documents which contain illustrations over the net.
- Photoshop (.psd), Paint Shop Pro
(.psp), and Gimp (.xcf) — proprietary formats
allowing multiple layers, where some are raster and some are vector.
(These are all raster editors which use vector layers for lettering.)
- Corel Draw (.cdr) — a vector editor which
can embed raster sections.
- Open-source vector graphics editor.
- Native format is SVG. It can input from Corel Draw, etc. and it
exports to PNG, XCF (Gimp), and more.
http://tavmjong.free.fr/INKSCAPE/MANUAL/html/ for a free book with
lots of step-by-step examples.
- Use Inkscape to create your graphic.
- Save it in SVG format.
- Determine how large a raster image you need, and save it in PNG.
- If you need a different-sized image, go back to the original SVG
and re-save in PNG.
Last modified: Tue Sep 8 18:10:20 CDT 2009