Teuton is from an Indo-European root that meant “tribe” or “people”. In addition to the German’s name for themselves, other obvious relations are Dutch, German Deutsch as in Deutschland, the German word for Germany, Plattdeutsch (the “low German” language), and the personal name Dietrich, which is the same as Theodoric, ruler of the people. Latin totus (all) is a possible relation, most obviously seen in total and the Italian musical direction tutti. (Mozart’s comic opera Così fan Tutte, dealing with female flirtation and inconstancy, translates as “They all do it”. C.f. tutti-frutti ice cream. (See thumb for an alternate derivation of totus.)
Keltic -rix also meant king, most obviously in Caesar’s foe Vercingetorix and that other famous Gaul, Asterix. All the way over in India, the Sanskrit word for king is rajah. Maharajah means “great king” — the first element is the same as major, much, magnify, Greek mega- and macro-, and so on. (The largest town of Tolkien’s hobbits was Mickel Delving, literally the Big Dig. Cf. the underground capitol of his dwarfs — Dwarrowdelf, the Dwarfs’ Dig. In general, Tolkien is a wonderful place to find words coined on oe roots.) The Sanskrit title of respect mahatma is maha-atma, great-soul.
Getting off the subject for a moment, atma is an example of the widespread duality of words for “soul” and “breath”, because it’s related to Greek atmosphere and Latin ether. Latin spiro- is another example of this, since inspire, expire, respire, and perspire all relate to breathing (to perspire is to “breathe through” the skin), but spirit (e.g., the Holy Spirit) means soul. Inspiration has both meanings — literally, breathing in, and figuratively, breathing the soul into something, as in the story of the creation of Adam — while expiration both means breathing out and the soul leaving the body at death. The original reason for covering the mouth during a yawn or cough was the folk belief that the soul might escape from the body at such times. Conspire seems slightly out of place; it is literally “breathe together”, and the word originally meant to harmonize or agree, without the modern connotation of conspiracy for unlawful purposes. There is a fairly well-known choral group called Conspirare, where presumably both the “harmonize” and “breathe together” meanings apply.
A third example of the duality is Latin anima which also meant both “breath” and “soul”, so magnanimous is exactly the same word as mahatma, while animal and animated have the sense of “living, breathing”. Unanimous is literally “with one breath”. Animosity originally meant bravery — having spirit. The change to “hatred” is through “animosity towards the enemy”. Similarly, animadversion is “turning the mind towards” [something]. The meaning changed from “notice” to “warning” to “criticism”, and in law it meant punishment, by way of “the animadversion of the judge”.) If someone has equanimity, they have an “even mind”. The Greek anemometer measures the wind, while the anemone waves in it. A Gaelic relative is the personal name Enid, Welsh for “soul”. The opposite of “magnanimous” is pusillanimous, small-souled; for the change to “cowardly”, cf. “animosity”, above. For the “small” meaning, see the section about poor Paul the pedophile.
As you may have gathered by now, there is an Indo-European me- or megh- root meaning great, seen in these mega-, major, maha-, and mickle words. Other relatives are master and mistress, majesty, maximum, mayor, Charlemagne, and the month of May (the growing season). Much originally was a synonym of “great”. This is obsolete except in English place names like Much Wenlock and in Shakespeare’s “much thanks”, although there is an echo in phrases like “He’s not much.” As mentioned elsewhere, oe mo produced more and most.
The original meaning of magnify was to praise, not to make larger. This is obvious in the Magnificat: “My soul doth magnify the Lord…”, since making an infinite being larger would be well beyond the powers of even a magnanimous soul. Indo-European experts insist there are separate roots meg- great, and magh-, powerful, and that therefore main (originally, strength, as in “might and main”) and Charlemagne are unconnected. As I’ve mentioned before in connection with other pairs of roots with similar meanings, I can’t believe that the Indo-Europeans themselves thought they were unrelated, and I’ve combined both in this discussion.
To reckon was originally to arrange in order (put in a straight line), and a rake was made from straight pieces of wood. Greek developed a sense of “desire” from the metaphor of stretching out the hand, so that anorexia (no desire/appetite) is an unlikely relative. Latin rogare extended the “stretch out the hand ” image even further to “ask for”, leading to words like interrogate.
Rigor and rigid look like relatives, but they are not. Instead, they are from a reig- root that means to stretch out or stiffen, whose other English relative is reach. Rigor mortis is “stiffness of death”. Note that rigorous is now almost a synonym of strict and stringent, from a different streig- “press or tighten” root. See Detroit for that rest of that tribe.
Source and surge are unlikely relatives of Latin regere. They are actually the same word; the original meaning was “move quickly in a straight line”. Source came to be used as the name of a fountainhead — cf. a spring of water which “springs” out of the ground.
The political definitions of right and left are because in the pre-revolutionary French Assembly the (conservative/reactionary) nobility were assigned the place of honor on the speaker’s right, while the (liberal/radical) commoners were on his inferior left. (Cf. the description of Jesus sitting “at the right hand of God the father”, or the fact that correct protocol requires the national flag to always be on the right of any others. If two cars come to an intersection simultaneously, the one on the right has precedence — i.e., the “right of way”.)
Newspapers have generalized the old meanings of political right and left, using “right” to mean “reactionary”. It is not uncommon these days to see references to Russia’s Marxists as a “right-wing party”, although they hold the exact same beliefs as when they were in power as a left-wing party! Note the whirring sound coming from the grave of Marx. React has a range of meanings — the literal “act back again”, act in response, or act in opposition. This last is the political sense; a reactionary is opposed to some development and wishes to return to the previous state of affairs. As hinted above, the term was coined during the French Revolution to describe those who wished to return to the old regime. In science, a reaction is a chemical or physical change in response to an event, and since 1900 a reactor is the vessel where reactions take place. Chemical reactors are more common than nuclear ones, but the latter get all the publicity.
There are a lot of phrases in English where “straight” is used to mean “correct” — a reformed criminal has “gone straight”, someone can get their “directions straight”, a person who misbehaves can be advised to “straighten up and fly right” or “get their act straight”, a noticeably proper person is a straight arrow, etc. Straight as the opposite of gay therefore contains a moral judgement, implying homosexuals are incorrect. (Cf. queer, which means “crooked” — it’s a member of the torque/torture family.) To be on the “straight and narrow” is not related, though. As mentioned elsewhere, it is really “strait”, so the phrase is literally “narrow and narrow”.
Actually, the modern word “queer” looks like two independent words of similar meaning have been blended. In the 16th century, English had both queer, strange, and quyer, bad, which would have produced modern quire. Either or both could have been applied to persons with non-standard tastes, of course.
Unlikely as it may seem, the closest English word to dirigible is dirge. The opening words of the antiphon in the Latin mass for the dead are Dirige, Domine, Deus meus, in conspectu tuo viam meam… — “Direct, O Lord, my God, my way in thy sight”, and it came to be used for any funeral lament. Cf. requiem, which is the opening word of the same service: Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, — “Give them eternal rest, oh Lord.”
Note the triple sense of “rule” (from Latin regula): It is an object that helps draw or measure straight lines, a guideline (the same figure of speech!) for proper behavior, and as a verb, to give orders. In fact, the first meaning of “regular” was “constrained by a rule”; it was applied to priests who had also taken a monastic vow (the regular clergy) as opposed to those who had not (the secular clergy).
The unrelated Greek ortho- root shows exactly the same duality of meanings, by the way. It meant both “straight” or “erect” (as in orthopedic, orthodontist, orthogonal, and the orthotic shoe insert) and “correct”, seen in orthodox. Orthography means “correct spelling”, not “straight writing”. An unlikely relation is arduous, whose original meaning was “steep”.