Power Tools for Technical Communication:
Primary Research Report Formatting (Print)


In this lab, you add headings, lists, and tables to the unformatted text of a primary research report and create a web page. To be ready for this project, you need to have have studied Chapter 17 in Power Tools for Technical Communication and have done at least one other web-page formatting project:
  1. Using a simple text editor or web-page editor of your choice, create a simple web page like the one shown in Chapter 17 entitled My First Web Page. Between the <TITLE> and </TITLE> tags and between the <H1> and </H1> tags, substitute Web Page Primary Research Report.
  2. Copy the following unformatted the text, and paste it into the web page you just started.
  3. Study the unformatted text carefully, rearrange the paragraphs as necessary, add headings, and reformat text as numbered or bulleted lists as necessary. (Use the style and format for primary research reports shown in Chapter 3 of Power Tools for Technical Communication.)
  4. Find the text that can be reformatted as tables and do that reformatting. (Don't forget to add cross-references to these tables in the text just preceding.)
  5. Format the references-cited information using the APA style.
  6. Put your name, Primary Research Report Formatting (Web Page), and the date on this document, and print it out for your instructor.


Use this as the title and author names: Assessing the Role of Honey Bees in a Field of Asiatic Cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) by A. S. Tanda Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Luhiana-141004 INDIA

Use this as the abstract:

Flowers of the Asiatic Cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) were visited by honey bees, wild bees, sco0lids, and butterflies. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and A. cerana indica F.) increased the boll retention rate by 7 to 12% through pollination. There was also an improvement in the quality of the cotton.

Use this material for the introduction:

Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an important fiber crop of Punjab (India). Bees play a vital role in improving the quantity and quality through intra- and intervarietal pollination of this species of cotton (Tanda, 1976; Tanda and Goyal, 1978, 1979a-d). American cotton (G. hirsutum L.) is another species of cotton grown commercially in the southern districts of Punjab. In the present communication, evidence to assess the honey bee's efficiency in a field of Asiatic cotton, on the behavior and effect on boll retention, and the qualitative characteristics has been summarized. These studies were carried out at Punjab Agricultural University, Luhiana, and at Nakodar, two Asiatic cotton-growing localities of the Punjab.

Use the following paragraphs for the body of this report:

For insect visitation, quadrats (2 × 2 m) were marked and the insect visitors were watched during peak hours (9-11 a.m.) of the day. Twenty observations (10+10 in each locality) were made for this purpose. For counting the flower visitation per trip, individual foragers were followed as they arrived in the field until they left the field, and the total number of flowers visited by a forager per minute was noted with the help of a stop watch (see Tanda and Goyal, 1979c).

Pollen grain deposition by honey bees (A. mellifera L. and A. c. indica F.) on the stigmas was assured by visual cum eye lens in 50 flowers, in the field. These flowers were accordingly marked and were designated as the bee pollinated flowers by Apis mellifera L. or A. cerana indica F. Simultaneously, the apices of the corollae of another set of 50 flowers were tied with the help of ordinary thread so that only self-pollination could take place in them. These flowers were designated as self-pollinated flowers. Still, another set of newly opened flowers was tagged and left untreated to receive pollination in the natural way in the open. These flowers were designated as open-pollinated flowers, as described by Tanda and Goya (1978). When the matured bolls began to open, cotton from each boll was collected and weighed separately after drying in the sun for one day. The cotton collected from each boll was also tested for quality using the following criteria: mean fiber length, ginning turn-out, and seed index.

The observations recorded on the bee visits, their pollinating efficiency, flower visits, and the effect on quantity and quality of Asiatic cotton are summarized in the following. The Indian race of honey bee A. c. indica F. foragers visited maximum flowers per trip (124.10 flowers per trip see the next paragraph) followed by A. dorsata F. (94.35 flowers per trip) and A. mellifera L. (86.60 flowers per trip), respectively. Maximum flowers per minute were visited by A. mellifera L. forager (5.7 flowers per minute) followed by A. dorsata F. (5.5 flowers per minute), and A. c. indica (4.6 flowers per minute), respectively. Earlier workers (Tanda ands Goyal, 1979b; Free, 1976), studying this crop and other crops, drew similar conclusions.

Concerning flower visitation by honey bees in a field of Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) Apis mellifera visited 86.60 flowers per trip and 5.7 flowers per minute; A. cerana indica 124.10, 4.6; A. dorsata 94.35, 5.5.

The data (see the next paragraph) shows that on an average 45.45 honey bees (A. mellifera, A. c. indica, A. c. indica, A. florea), 31.16 wild bees, 17.33 scolids, and 55.00 butterflies visited the flowers at Luhiana, whereas 43.25 honey bees (excluding A. mellifera and A. c. indica), 42.33 wild bees, 20.66 scolids and 17.00 butterflies visited the flowers at Nakodar. Total flower insert visitors were found to be 148.94 and 123.24 at Luhiana and Nakodar, respectively. Present observations are in line with the important insect visitors reported by other authors (Tanda and Goyal, 1979b; Free, 1976).

Concerning the comparative abundance of insects visiting the flowers of Gossypium arboreum in two different localities of Punjab (based on 10+10 observations), among the various categories of insect visitors, Apis mellifera, A. cerana indica, and A. dorsata made 45.45 visits at Luhiana and 43.25 visits at Nakodar; wild bees 31.16, 42.33; scolids 17.33, 20.66; butterflies 55.00, 17.00; totals are 148.94, 123.24, respectively.

It may be seen in the data in the next paragraph that the retention of bolls in the bee-pollinated plants wasa 7 to 12% more as compared to that of open-pollinated flowers. In self-pollinated flowers, the retention of bolls was only 30%, which was the lowest. The advantage of bee pollination over open- and self-pollination is thus quite clear and indicates more yield through higher boll retention by bee pollination as suggested in earlier work (McGregor, 1976; Tanda and Goyal, 1978; Free, 1976) in this and other species of cotton.

Concerning the effect of bee pollination on boll retention and qualitative characteristics of Asiatic cotton (G. arboreum), flowers pollinated with Apis mellifera had a boll-retention rate of 62%, a seed cotton weight per boll of 1.8 g, a mean fiber length of 16.3 mm, a halo length of 18.1 mm, a ginning turn-out of 34.3 (% lint); and a seed index of 4.3 g; flowers pollinated with A. c. indica, 57, 1.7, 16.2, 18.1, 34.2, 4.2; self-pollinated flowers, 30, 1.6, 15.5, 17.0, 33.2, 3.6; open-pollinated flowers, 50, 1.7, 15.8, 17.1, 33.7, 4.0; and the C.D. (critical difference) at 5%, —, 0.07, 0.53, 1.09, 0.79, 0.29, respectively.

In all the tests, the quality of cotton produced in bagged bolls pollinated by bees was significantly superior to that of cotton produced in bag without bees. However, the difference obtained with A. melliferaand A. c. indica bees was not significant. Similar results have been obtained by McGregor (1976) and Tanda and Goyal (1979b) in cage in which bees were confined.

The flowers of G. arboreum were visited by honey bees, wild bees, scolids, and butterflies. A. mellifera and A. c. indica played an especially significant role in pollinating them, increasing boll retention by 7 to 12% and improving the quality of the cotton. This simple and efficient technique of assessing the role of these honey bees in field conditions can be useful in other crops, particularly in those bearing solitary flowers.

Here are the notes for the references-cited list (use APA style):

By J. B. Free, J. B., a 1976 book entitled Insect pollination of crops, published by the Academic Press: London, 544 total pages.

By McGregor, S. E., a book put out by U.S. Govt. Printing Office (Wasghington, D.C.) 1976 entitled Insect pollination of cultivated crops (400 pages).

A 1976 master's thesis entitled Studies on the role of insect pollination in desi cotrton (Gossypium arboreum L.) written by A. S. Tanda at Punjab Agricultural Univ, Ludhiana (73 pages).

An 1978 article appearing in a journal called Seed Farms (volume 4, issue 3, pages 45-46) entitled Effect of bee pollination on boll retention in Gossypium arboreum Linn. by Tanda, A. S. and N. P. Goyal.

Another article by the two preceding authors, published in 1979, entitled Preliminary observations on the effect of intervarietal bee pollination of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum Linn.) appearing in volume 41, issue 3 of the Indian Journal Entomology, pages 281-282.

Same authors, same year of publication, an article entitled Insect pollination in Asiatic cottom appearing in the Journal of Agricultural Research, issue 1 in volume 18, pages 64-72.

Same authors, same year of publication, an article entitled Some observations on the behavior of Apis mellifera Linn. and Apis cerana indica workers in a field of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum Linn.) appearing in the American Bee Journal, volume 119 (issue 2), page 106.

Same authors, same year of publication, an article entitled Pollen dispersal by insects in desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum Linn.) appearing in Seeds Farms, volume 5 (issues 5-8), pages 56-59.


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