Power Tools for Technical Communication:
Planning Graphics

In this lab, you study unillustrated text to determine where graphics are needed and then follow instructions to add text boxes describing those graphics using your preferred word-processing software:
  1. For each item, copy the text, and paste it into your preferred word-processing software.
  2. If you've studied the numbered and bulleted lists, reformat with lists as necessary.
  3. At those points where you think graphics are needed, create a text box, and in it briefly describe the graphics you'd use. (Don't go overboard with graphics; just plan for the essential ones!)

  4. As needed, add a figure title below the text box.
  5. Put your name, Planning Graphics, and the date on this document, and print it out for your instructor.

Installing the TCP/IP Protocol

You will use your email account everyday to send messages or to view mail messages sent to you. You will also frequently connect to the Internet to do research. Before you can connect to the email system or to the Internet, you must first install the TCP/IP protocol following these steps:

  1. Select the Start button on the Windows 95 desktop taskbar.

  2. Select Settings on the pop-up menu.

  3. Select the Control Panel folder on the secondary pop-up menu.

  4. Open the Network icon in the Control Panel window by double-clicking the mouse.

  5. Select the Add button on the Configuration tab of the Network window.

  6. Select Protocol on the Select Network Component Type window, and select the Add button.

  7. Select Microsoft in the Manufacturers box, and select TCP/IP in the Network Protocols box. Select the OK button on the Select Network Protocol window.

  8. You will be prompted for the Windows 95 CD. Place the CD in the CD tray and close the door. Wait approximately 45 seconds to allow the CD to be recognized by the system.

  9. Windows 95 will copy the necessary files to your hard drive. A message will be displayed indicating that you must restart the computer before the new settings will take effect. Select the Yes button to restart the computer.


Riparian areas are those lands that border natural waterways, such as streams, rivers, and lakes. In the western United States, riparian areas comprise less than 1% of the total land area. They are almost always adjacent to arid upland areas where vegetation and animal life are less diverse and where water is less accessible. These water-rich areas are valuable for their ability to sustain diverse vegetation, to provide habitat for endangered and threatened species, and to purify and replenish natural aquifers. Other, more humid, parts of the United States have similar riparian areas but are less distinctive than they are in drier regions. Riparian areas have become increasingly vulnerable due to development, overgrazing, dam construction, clearance of vegetation, and increased recreational uses. These unique and valuable areas are essential to the well-being of local communities and to the future of a healthy, productive environment.

Values and Functions of Riparian Areas

Across the United States, riparian areas are similar ecologically. The key characteristics shared by these areas include: fresh, flowing water, diverse vegetation, and sedimentary soil. These characteristics must work together successfully to maintain a healthy riparian environment.

Water. Water flow is critical in a riparian ecosystem. Riparian areas are low-lying which permits the water to flow easily. This flow carries sedimentary materials along the streambeds or river channels; seasonal fluctuations may alter this flow with periodic flooding. Ground water levels are closer to the surface and easily available to plant life. The water carries essential nutrients that support the vegetation and also provides a cooling environment for fish and insect populations. Wildlife often depends solely upon these water sources, particularly in the western United States.

Vegetation. Vegetation flourishes because of the availability of water and rich soil. Tree roots and fallen trunks and branches can slow water flow creating a supportive environment for aquatic insects. Pools and eddies provide nurseries for freshwater fish species which can then feed on the insects. This organic material also allows time for water to infiltrate the soil. Leaf drop contributes to the energy cycle by providing food to fish and rich organic matter to the ecosystem. Vegetation provides shelter from extreme temperatures, keeping streams cool and providing more oxygen for fish to breathe. Wildlife habitat is made available with the abundance of water, cover, and nesting areas.

Soil. Sedimentary materials deposited by the movement of water prevent erosion, provide a source of minerals and other nutrients for vegetation, and act as a filter for ground water. The soil in a riparian area is composed of stratified sediments which are capable of storing large amounts of water. (Text continues with discussion of disturbances to riparian areas.)


  1. Cohen, Russell. Riverways Program. Massachusetts Dept. of Fisheries. Wildlife and Environmental Enforcement. Fact Sheets: Functions and Values of Riparian Areas, 8 July 1997. 10 Dec. 2001. http://www.state.ma.us/dfwele/river/rivfstoc.htm
  2. King County, Washington. Dept. of Natural Resources. Water and Land Resources Division. The Value of Riparian Vegetation, 26 Oct. 1999. 9 Dec. 2001. http://dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/pi/ripveg.htm
  3. United States Dept. of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Riparian Areas: Environmental Uniqueness, Function, and Values, NRCS/RCA Issue Brief 11, August 1996. 9 Dec. 2001. http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov/land/RCAarchive/ib11text.html#what
  4. United States Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. Environmental Education Homepage. Office of Environmental Education and Volunteers, Ribbons of Green, 1 Sept. 1996. 10 Dec. 2001. http://www.blm.gov/education/riparian/define.html


The embalming process can be broken down into four steps: organ removal; drying; cleansing, and packing.

Organ removal. All vital organs, with the exception of the heart, are removed from the body. Since the heart is considered the center of the human spirit or essence, it remains inside the body throughout the mummification process. The remaining organs, which include the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines, are removed through large slits cut in the side of the body. Each organ is washed in a mixture of frankincense, myrrh and palm wine. After this cleaning process, they are individually dried using a special natural salt called natron, which very efficiently absorbs moisture. Once the organs are thoroughly dried they are stored in four special ceramic jars called Canopic jars. Each jar represents one of the four sons of Horus who are the official guardians of entrails. The Canopic jars will accompany the mummified human to the afterlife where they will be re-united with the body.

Over time the mummification process was gradually altered. The dried internal organs were placed back into the body cavity rather than in the Canopic jars. The Canopic jars still remained, however, as part of the symbolic ritual of cross-over into the afterlife.

The Egyptians never considered the brain to be an organ. It was removed by punching a hole through the top of the nasal passage into the brain cavity. It's believed that a large hook was then inserted through the hole and the brain pulled out in pieces. Recent experiments in 1994 by a team of scientists from the University of Maryland and The Long Island University demonstrated that this approach simply does not work.[2] The only way they were able to remove the brain was to pulverize or liquefy it with the hook and simply pour out the contents. Whatever approach the Egyptians used, the brain was subsequently discarded as waste. (Text continues with description of other steps in the process.)

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