Power Tools for Technical Communication:
Second-Pass Review

In this lab, you perform a "second-pass" review on an excerpt from instructions. (To do this lab, you need to have studied Chapters 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 Power Tools for Technical Communication which cover the topics listed below.)
  1. Either print these pages out so that you can mark the corrections with a pen or pencil, or copy and paste them into your preferred word-processing software and revise.
  2. Study Chapter 18 of Power Tools for Technical Communication, paying particular attention to second-pass reviewing.
  3. Study the text carefully for problems or inconsistencies involving the following:
    • Parallelism in the phrasing of headings
    • Headings at the right level
    • Task-oriented headings where necessary
    • No pronouns referring to headings
    • Standard use of bulleted and numbered lists
    • Lead-ins to lists, punctuated correctly
    • Parallelism of list items
    • List items for specific instructional steps
    • Consistent punctuation and capitalization of list items
    • Consistent highlighting for button names, displayed text, user-entered text
    • Notices as opposed to italicized, bolded, or all caps paragraphs
    • Illustrations, tables, charts, and graphs as necessary
    • Cross-references to figures and tables
    • Descriptive figure titles (numbers if necessary)
    • Tables, lists, or other format for any text to facilitate ease of reading and scanning, as necessary
  4. Correct the problems and inconsistencies you find.
  5. Put your name, Second-Pass Review, and the date on this document, and hand it in to your instructor.

How to Make a Cassette Tape from Compact Discs

The following is a complete list of instructions to record a cassette tape of songs from up to six various compact discs on the Pioneer Entertainment System. The system consists of an audio/video stereo receiver (model VSX-4900S), a multi-play compact disc player (model PD-M450), and a stereo double cassette deck (model CT-W650R). These step-by-step instructions will teach the anyone who is familiar with playing tapes and CDs how to make a cassette tape from compact discs (CD). Also included is a quick overview of handling techniques for CDs and cassettes, as well as some troubleshooting pointers.

Equipment and Supplies

To copy a cassette from a CD, you will need the following:

  1. blank cassette tape
  2. CD(s) from which to record
  3. ordered list of the songs you wish to record

Please read all instructions before you begin.

Getting Started

  1. Make a list of songs you wish to record onto a cassette tape from up to six different compact discs. Reference the songs in the order in which you want them to appear on the tape. Label each CD from 1 to 6. Label each song with its corresponding number (for example, CD 1, song 5).

  2. Estimate the length of all the songs. If the length of each song is not noted on the CD, use 3.50 minutes as the average length of a song. (For example, a 60-minute cassette can hold approximately 16 songs.) Adjust your song list accordingly.

  3. Make sure you have a cassette tape long enough to hold your song list. There are 30-minute, 60-minute, and 90-minute tapes.

How to Handle Discs

Although compact discs are quite sturdy, the following precautions should be taken when handling discs. Fingerprints or smudges on the CD can reduce the brightness of the light reflected from the signal surfaces, causing degradation of sound quality. Keep discs clean by gently wiping with a soft cloth from the inside of the CD out. If a CD becomes very dirty, use a slightly damp, soft cloth and gently wipe away the dirt, removing any water drops with a dry, soft cloth. Do not use any solvents, cleaning sprays, or other related products. These might damage the surface of the disc. Always store discs in their cases in a vertical position avoiding high heat and humidity.

The 6-Disc Magazine

Up to 6 CDs can be placed into the magazine. The top tray is numbered 1 and then increases in order from 2 to 6 for the lower trays.

  1. Using the thumb tab, slide out one disc tray at a time.

  2. Each CD should be removed from its case and placed in disc tray with label face down.

  3. Slide the disc tray back into its original position.

  4. Steps 2 through 4 should be repeated to insert additional CDs.

  5. Replace magazine in compact disc player.

(illustration of putting disc in magazine.)

Figure 1. Inserting discs into magazine.

Pull out only one disc tray at a time. Make sure you put the label side up or the CD will not play. To avoid fingerprints on the CD, put your middle finger in the hole and your thumb on the outer edge of the CD. Do not place any other objects in disc tray.

Programming Desired Tracks/Discs. To program the tracks of the CD in the desired order of your song list, follow these simple instructions:

  1. Turn on the power of the stereo receiver and select the CD input selector. (See Figure 2.)

    (illustration of stereo receiver.)

  2. Turn on the power on the compact disc player.

  3. Press the Stop button.

  4. Press the Program button. The Program indicator will light on the display.

  5. Press the Disc number button of the first disk from which you wish to record. (This information can be obtained from your song list.) AL (all tracks) appears on the display.

  6. Press the |<< or >>| button until you see the desired track number on the display.

  7. Press the Program button.

  8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for additional tracks to be programmed from the same disc.

  9. Repeat steps 5 through 7 to program additional discs/tracks.

  10. If you make a mistake or want to start over, delete the programming by ejecting the magazine.

Handling Cassette Tapes

The following items should be checked before loading a cassette. Make sure the tape in the cassette is not loose or hanging out of the cassette. To remove slack in tape, place pencil in the reel hole and turn until slack is removed. To prepare tape for recording, you must: make sure erasure prevention tabs are intact; make sure the clear leader tape is bypassed by allowing the tape to run for 5 seconds before recording. To avoid dust and dirt buildup, keep tapes in their cases. To prevent important recordings from being erased, remove the erasure prevention tabs with a screwdriver. The erasure tab for each side is located on the top left when the side that you want to protect is facing you.

(illustration of cassette tape erasure tabs.)

Figure 3. Cassette tape erasure tabs.

Preparing the Tape Deck for Recording

  1. Turn on the power of the cassette deck.

  2. Open cassette door and place the blank tape in Deck II with side A facing you.

  3. Press the Auto BLE button to prepare the tape for recording. Wait for the "Tuned" indicator to light. This should take approximately 30 seconds.

  4. Place the reverse mode switch in the two-way mode position .

  5. Set the Dolby NR switch to "C".

  6. Adjust the recording level.

  7. Press the CD Synchro button.

  8. The cassette deck begins recording, and the CD player begins playback.

  9. The recording will automatically stop when either the CD player reaches the end of its programming, or the cassette tape runs out.

If you believe your stereo system is malfunctioning, check the table below to see if you can correct the problem. If you are unsuccessful, contact your nearest Pioneer authorized dealer, or the place of purchase.

If a loud noise is produced or play stops, the disc has bad scratch or bad warp, or disc is extremely dirty. Remove damaged disc or clean dirty disc.

If playback/recording stops immediately, disc is loaded upside down, or disc has smudges. Load disc with label face down, or clean the smudges from the disk.

If cassette door will not open, cassette deck is not in the stop mode, or power was turned off while the tape was moving. Press the stop button or turn the power on.

If the cassette door will not close, cassette is not loaded properly. Turn cassette over and reinsert.

If recording indicator light does not light, the erasure prevention tabs have been removed. Cover the hole with a piece of tape where the erasure prevention tabs were removed, or replace with a new cassette tape.

If the tape cannot be recorded, tape heads are dirty. Clean the tape heads with a cotton swab and alcohol.

Programs and information provided by hcexres@prismnet.com.