Power Tools for Technical Communication:
Design Tables, Graphs, Charts (Print)

In this lab, you study unformatted text and decide whether tables, graphs, or charts can be used:
  1. Do as many of the items below as your instructor requires or as you have time for.
  2. For each item, copy the text, and paste it into your preferred word-processing software.
  3. Review the discussion of tables, graphs, and charts in Power Tools for Technical Communication.
  4. Study the unformatted text carefully to determine whether tables, graphs, or charts can be used and which types, and then reformat the text accordingly.
  5. Create properly formatted tables, graphs, or charts.
  6. Either show your instructor your completed work; or put your name, Tables, Graphs, Charts Design: Print, and the date on this document, and print it out for your instructor.

  1. Oil and gas reserves:
    The potential additions to reserves from reserve growth are nearly as large as the estimated undiscovered resource volumes. These estimates imply that 75 percent of the world's grown conventional oil endowment and 66 percent of the world's grown conventional gas endowment have already been discovered in the areas assessed (exclusive of the U.S.). Additionally, for these areas, 20 percent of the world's grown conventional oil endowment and 7 percent of the world's grown conventional gas endowment had been produced as of the end of 1995.

    The 2000 World Assessment shows the mean estimate of the world-grown conventional endowment of oil, gas and NGL, including cumulative production, remaining reserves, and, in conventional accumulations, mean estimates of reserve growth and undiscovered resources in billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). The production and reserve data is largely from Petroconsultants (1996) and NRG and Associates (1995). As for mean oil, 649 in undiscovered conventional oil, 612 reserve growth (conventional), 859 remaining reserves, 539 in cumulative production (2659 total); as for mean gas, 778, 551, 770, 150 (2240); as for mean natural gas liquids (NGL), 207, 4268, 0 (324), respectively (all values in BBOE). ("Mean" in this context refers to expected volumes.)

  2. Global temperature change:
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data that summarizes global temperature change from 1861 to 1991. With 0°ree; at several points, 1861 starts, at -0.775° 1867, -0.43° 1871, -0.55°; 1879, -0.32; 1881, -0.43°; 1884, -0.53°; 1886, -0.55°; 1891, -0.625°; 1897, -0.38°; 1901, -0.6°; 1909, -0.875°; 1911, -0.8°; 1914, -0.55°; 1917, -0.66°; 1921, -0.5°; 1927, -0.38°; 1929, -0.4°; 1931, -0.1°; 1941, +0.175°; 1948, -0.175°; 1951, -0.1°; 1953, -0.018°; 1961, +0.08°; 1963, -0.19°; 1971, -0.1°; 1975, -0.19°; 1981, +0.15°; 1983, +0.22°; 1985, +0.19°; 1988, +0.44°; 1991, +0.425°. (These are estimated values from the source, IPCC, 1995.)

  3. Global water resources:
    Humans must have freshwater to live. But about 97 percent of the Earth's water is too salty to use. The remaining 3 percent is freshwater, but most of it is in the polar icecaps, remote glaciers, and icebergs and is not easily accessible. Accessible freshwater, therefore, comes from streams, lakes, and underground sources. These sources represent less than one-half of one percent of all water on Earth. If all of the water on Earth equals 100 percent, 97.2% of it is in the oceans (saltwater) and 2.8% of it is freshwater. Of the Earth's total freshwater supply, 2.380% is in icecaps, glaciers, 0.397% is in ground water, 0.022% is in surface water 0.001% is in air and soil. (For the source of this information, use water.usgs.gov, last updated 17:20:29 Mon 09 Jul 2001; the title of the page is "Water Distribution." For author, use U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  4. Earthquake data:
    According to long-term records (since about 1900), about 18 major earthquakes (7.0 - 7.9) and one great earthquake (8.0 or above) can be expected in any given year. However, consider what has happened in the past 28 years, from 1969 through 1996. USGS records show that 1992 is the first time that the long-term average number of major earthquakes was reached or exceeded since 1971. In 1970 and in 1971, 20 and 19 major earthquakes occurred, respectively, but in other years the total was in many cases well below the 18 per year that can be expected based on the long-term average.

    Specifically, 15 major earthquakes (7.0-7.9 on the Richter scale) occurred in 1969; 20 in 1970; 19 in 1971; 15 in 1972; 13 in 1973; 14 in 1974; 14 in 1975; 15 in 1976; 11 in 1977; 16 in 1978; 13 in 1979; 13 in 1980; 13 in 1981; 10 in 1982; 14 in 1983; 8 in 1984; 13 in 1985; 5 in 1986; 11 in 1987; 8 n 1988; 6 in 1989; 12 in 1990; 11 in 1991; 23 in 1992; 15 in 1993; 13 in 1994; 22 in 1995; 21 in 1996; 20 in 1997. (wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov, visited May 31, 2000, last updated May 12, 2000, maintained by M. Zirbes). Great earthquakes during this 27-year period were also below the level indicated by the long-term average.

  5. Forests and global warming:
    Forest change may be visible in a few decades from now. This would involve a faster rate of mortality among mature trees and a decline in seedlings and growth of new species. The studies of forests in the Southeast indicate that these forests could begin to die back in 30 to 80 years. Concerning the possible reductions in forests in Mississippi in response to two different scenarios of warming, starting in 1980, woody mass (tons per hectare) is estimated at 132 assuming no climate change, GISS 137; in 1985, 129 and 138; in 1990, 128 and 139.5; in 1995, 125 and 136; in 2000, 122.5 and 122; in 2005, in 130 and 116; in 2010, 133.5 and 93; in 2015, 136 and 94.5; in 2020, 141.5 and 98.5; in 2025, 133, and 99; in 2030, 130.5 and 98.5; in 2035, 132 and 56.5; in 2040, 134 and 9.5; in 2045, 135 and 10; in 2050, 135 and 11; in 2055, 133 and 5.5; in 2060, 124 and 1.5. The method used in the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) projections assumes constant exponential in emissions. The GISS simulates the global climate effects of time-dependent variations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. It has been shown that the model only slightly underestimates the observed interannual variability across the globe. Source: Environmental Protection Agency, The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, EPA-230-05-89-050, December 1989.

  6. Components of acidrain gases:
    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases account for most of the acid-rain gases in our atmosphere. Researchers have determined that about 22% of the total acid-rain gases come from NOx produced by road transport. About 12% comes from NOx produced by power stations; 3% from industry; and 4% from other. Meanwhile, power station-produced sulfur dioxide accounts for 45% of all acid-rain gases; 10% from industry; and 4% from other.

  7. Infectious diseases:
    Molecular studies of HIV have led to developing drugs that interfer with viral biology. Taking a combination of three drugs, indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine caused 85% of patients to have no detectable virus in their blood. Data being collected will show if these and other drugs will make AIDS treatable.

    In 1995, tuberculosis accounted for 3.1 million deaths; diarrhea, 3.1 million deaths; respiratory infections, 4.4 million deaths; malaria, 2.1 million deaths; Hepatitus B, 1.1 million deaths; measles, HIV/AIDS, and others, each just under 1 million deaths.

    Note that that since 1981, there have been 2.5 million deaths by AIDS and 20-40 million deaths by malaria.

  8. Human temperature cycle:
    On average, healthy person's body temperature starts to decrease at about 11 p.m. It then reaches its lowest at about 4 a.m. It continues to rise during the morning. After a slight mid-afternoon dip, the temperature will rise to its highest during the early evening. The range in body temperature throughout the day is typically about 1.1° Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit).

    Specifically, the average body temperature at 6:00 p.m. is 38°; at midnight, 37°; at 4 a.m., 36°; at 6 a.m., 36.2°; at 10 a.m., 37.4°; at noon, 37°;

  9. Characteristics of leased and owned automobiles:

    Compared to vehicles owned by consumers, leased vehicles are more likely to have air conditioning, automatic transmissions, and four-wheel drive. Leased vehicles also are much more likely to have been new when obtained by the consumer.

    Specifically, in 1996, air conditioning was present in 98% of leased automobiles and 80% in owned autombiles; 93% of leased automobiles were new when obtained, 37% of owned autombiles; automatic transmission was present in 86% of leased automobiles and 76% in owned autombiles; four-wheel drive was present in 18% of leased automobiles and 11% in owned autombiles. (Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics is an agency within the U.S. Department of Labor, 1997: http://www.bls.gov, lasted updated August 16, 1999).

  10. Access provided people with disabilities:
    Although many people with disabilities are being employed and remaining employed, the unemployment rate for people with disabilities is unacceptably high, as shown in the 1994-95 National Health Interview Survey. This survey found that 79 percent of adults without disabilities were working at the time they were interviewed and only 37 percent of those with disabilities were employed. Two federally funded studies published in 2000 give some insight into why the unemployment rate is so high among persons with disabilities and provide data on what employers are doing in the areas of employing and accommodating workers with disabilities.

    Among the types of access provided people with disabilities, wheelchair access was 82% available in the private sector and 95% in public sector percent; time flexibility in test taking, 45 and 39; communication access for hearing impaired, 43 and 91; communication access for visually impaired, 37 and 77; removing volatile/scented substances, 32 and 48. (Source: Statistics About People with Disabilities and Employment, Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor, http://www.dol.gov page dated July 2001)

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