Highlighting, as the term is used here, is the use of typographical effects to call attention to text. These effects can include italics, bold, all-caps, quotation marks, color, and so on.

One of the problems in technical writing—in particular, technical writing about computers—involves the use of the various techniques for emphasis. Unfortunately, some technical texts go overboard on the use of the various emphasis techniques which are discussed here.

Highlighting Fundamentals

Consider a few fundamental principles of emphasis:

In the following discussion, you'll notice that any system of emphasis techniques can get quite complicated and hard to remember. You'll notice that there are many equally valid ways of using emphasis techniques: for example, in some cases, it's arbitrary whether you use bold or italics. To offset this complexity, you must document your guidelines for emphasis in a style guide. A style guide is simply a record of the decisions you and your documentation team have made about how you want your documents to look.

Your readers also need to be informed as to the highlighting scheme you plan to use. This can be handled in the preface: include a section called "Highlighting" or "Typographical Conventions" where you list how you use italics, bold, fonts, and other such effects. For an example, see the discussion of prefaces in the chapter on standard components of technical books

Specific Emphasis Techniques

This next section goes one by one through the various emphasis techniques, explaining the common practices.

Note: To keep things simple, highlighting issues for tables, figures, headings, lists, and notices are presented in those sections.

Bold

In publishing, technical publishing in particular, usage is mixed as to whether to use bold or italics for basic emphasis. For example, if you want to emphasize that readers should not turn off the computer without first shutting it down, the "not" can be bold or italics. Traditionally, italics has been used, but, perhaps because of computers, bold is commonly used as well.

Whichever technique you use, use it consistently throughout your text or library of related texts. By the way, readers are not likely to be able to distinguish between levels of emphasis: for example, using italics for important text and bold for very important text is likely to be lost on most readers.

If you are tempted to make an entire paragraph bold, remember one of the principle of emphasis discussed above: using too much of an emphasis technique causes the effect of the technique to be lost. Not only that, but too much emphasis makes readers less inclined to read. Instead of carefully reading an all-bold paragraph, readers may just ignore it entirely!

Instead of creating an all-bold paragraph, use the special-notice format. In it, a key word (for example, Important, Note, Danger, Caution, Warning) is bolded, while the rest of the text is left regular roman (that is, the same font and style as the regular body text).

Legitimate use of bold in technical texts varies widely. As long as you develop a scheme that is directly related to the reader's need and to the characteristics of the text (or technology) and that does not lead to overkill, your use of bold should work fine.

Here are some common, standard uses of bold:

You'll notice that the preceding discussion stated no absolute rules. that's the way it is: technical publishing practice is quite varied. The main idea is to develop a logical, controlled system of highlighting, use it consistently, and document it in a style guide so that you and your documentation team members can refer to it.

Italics

Here are some of the standard uses for italics:

Underscores

There is almost no reason for using underscores in technical text. In the days of typewritten text, there certainly was. However, in these times, when bold, italics and other such typographical effects are readily available, underscores look obsolete. If you want to emphasize something, use your standard guidelines -- for example, use italics or bold. Don't try to create gradations of emphasis: for example, a scale of increasing importance ranging from italics to bold to underscore will be lost on your readers.

If you see good use of underscores in technical text, it will probably occur in heading design.

Capitalization

In technical publishing, there seems to be a running battle between technical writers and technical experts over capitalization. Technical experts like to use initial caps for practically every component and process in a system, while technical writers insist on using caps for proper names only. Also, technical experts (and management) typically use all caps for text they consider important and want readers to attend to.

As a technical writer, hold the line against capitalization. Capital letters are distracting; all-caps text is uncomfortable to read. Capital letters create a busy text, which sends lots of unnecessary signals. Capital letters are traditionally intended for proper names such as Microsoft, Netscape, Gateway, Dell Computers, WordPerfect, and so on. The classic guidelines in technical publishing is to capitalize the names of separately orderable products only. However, the politics of organizations bends this guideline considerably. If a company is proud of a certain feature in its new release, for example, EnergyMiser, it will capitalize it, even though you can't order it separately. This is the point at which capitalization is being for emphasis. As a technical writer, you'll want to use caps for proper names and keep the use of caps as an emphasis technique to a minimum.

Here are some typical guidelines for capitalization:

Single or double quotation marks

Quotation marks are often mistakenly used as emphasis techniques in technical text. As a technical writer, limit quotation marks to the traditional usage, which includes quoted speech; numbers, letters, or words referred to as such. Quotation marks, like capital letters, tend to create a busy, distracting text and therefore should be avoided.

Well-designed computer text avoids quotation marks rather vigorously. One of the primary reasons is that some readers might mistakenly assume that they must include the quotation marks in the commands they enter.

Instead of Use the "move" command.
Write Use the move command.
Instead of Enter "copy install installnow."
Write Enter copy install installnow

Note: While some technical texts have well-defined uses for single quotation marks, in general there is no standard use for single quotation marks, other than the traditional quotation-within-a-quotation rule. When you see single quotation marks within technical text, there is usually no more rationale for their use than there is for double quotation marks.

Alternate fonts

One of the most common styles involving alternate fonts is to use Courier or some similar monospaced, old-typewriter-style font in contrast to the standard body font (such as Times New Roman or Helvetica). You can create this effect in web page by using the <KBD> tags. For example, "type install to install the program."

Here's a review of the common uses of alternate fonts:

Color

Color is used in technical text but it is expensive and hard to manage through the publishing cycle.

However, color is easy to use in online information. It's common to see hypertext links, for example, using color. Online helps typically use green while web pages typically use blue for new links and purple for links the user has already explored.

The tendency to use color indiscriminately in online information is much like the tendency to go wild with bold, italics, type sizes, and alternate fonts in hardcopy information. The feeling must be something like, "It's there, it's cool, so let's use it!"

There are not any strongly developed trends in the use of color in technical text, either online or hardcopy, other than the use of green and blue for hypertext links, mentioned earlier. Printed technical texts rarely use color because of the cost.

If you want to use color, plan it carefully. Don't expect readers to remember that red signals one idea, blue another idea, and green still some other idea. Just stick to one color. In general, avoid using color for extended text. Instead of making an entire warning notice red, just make the Warning label red and leave the warning text regular roman.

Better still, read some of the standard literature on color in the technical communication field. There are general design issues and international issues:

Combinations of the preceding

In general, it's a bad idea to combine emphasis techniques, for example, bold and italics. In nonprofessional technical text, you'll see such garish combinations as all all-caps bold-italics or all-caps bold-italics with double quotation marks. Avoid these!

One legitimate combination is to use italics with alternate fonts. For example, when you show the syntax of a command, you want the entire text to be in Courier, but you also want the variables to be in italics:

copy OldFileName NewFileName

Functional Names for Character Styles and Tags

If you have ever been around the publisging industry, you may encountered something called semantic markup. This means naming sections of text according to the structural role they play in the document—for example, heading. The reader does not see these names, but they play an important role in how the document is formatted and how it can be reused.

This same idea applies to words in phrases in text. For example, in the HTML for a web page, you can use the <b>bolded word</b> tags to make a word bold. But in semantic markup, the tag might be command is the bolded word is a command. In HTML CSS, the semantic markup would look like this: <span class="command">bolded word</span>>

Further Explorations

Once you've read the preceding, a good thing to do next is to explore technical publications to see what highlighting schemes they use. Watch for the way things like bold, italics, caps, alternate fonts, and other such effects are used. Most likely, you'll see very different usage than what you've read about here. As you explore, think about the logic of the emphasis techniques you see being used; try to formulate the rules that the writers seem to be using; watch for inconsistencies in highlighting; and think critically about the usage you see—is it logical? overkill? "underkill?"

After you've done some exploring like this, the next logical step is to read the chapter on style guides, if you've not already done so. Highlighting schemes must be documented in style guides so that you won't forget them and so that your documentation team members can refer to them.

Common Highlighting Problems

Actually, several problems involving emphasis can occur:

What is the point of using emphasis techniques? Used properly, they highlight text that readers must see, for example, alerting them to actions they must take or avoid. Emphasis techniques can make following a procedure considerably easier. But the design of the highlighting scheme (which organizes the emphasis techniques around a system of use) must be based on the reader, the tasks that the reader must accomplish, and the characteristics of the text (or the technology) that the reader is using.

Highlighting Scheme

If all the options and alternatives discussed previously have you overwhelmed, consider using the following highlighting scheme. It's based on highlighting you'll find in many UNIX, Windows,and Linux documents.

Names of fields, tabs, folders, dialogs (boxes), menus Cap style on screen; regular roman
Names of icons Cap style on screen; bold
Buttons (or functional equivalent if not so labeled) Cap style on screen; bold
Menu selections, selectable options Cap style on screen; bold
Commands entered verbatim with no parameters or flags Bold
Text entered or displayed Courier New; 1-point size smaller than body font
Variables Italics; regular roman
Programming code Courier New; 1-point size smaller than body font; regular roman
Labels on hardware Courier New; 1-point size smaller than body font; bold

Notes:

  1. Regular roman refers to whatever the font and font size that is used for body text.
  2. While these suggestions recommend "cap style on screen," developers sometimes have an unfortunate tendency to use all caps. Because an all-caps style cuts down om readability, go ahead and switch to title case.
  3. If you show users how to enter a command including example text, don't bold the command that occurs in the example text:

    Use the mv comand to change the name of location of a file: mv thisfile.txt thatfile.txt.

  4. If you show users how to enter a command including example text, and include variables in the example text, use italics on on the variables.

    Use the mv comand to change the name of location of a file: mv my_file.txt your_file.txt.

  5. If you simply refer to the name of a screen or menu that is not clicked or initiates any event, use cap style on screen and regular roman.
  6. Some styles bold the action that users are to take (for example, press, enter, delete). That certainly is an option, but for me it's too much highlighting.