The Jarda Numerical System
2ylken …Jardae
(For best results, install the Jarda TrueType font, Lhoerr, to read examples written in Jarda.)

Basic numerals

Jarda uses octal (base-8) arithmetic for most purposes. The basic numerals from 1-8 in Jarda are (1) ju ju, (2) Ral ṛal, (3) JaG ģağ, (4) kun kun, (5) raz raz, (6) kov kôv, (7) nO5 noś, and (8) Rom ṛôm. Numerals can be combined in two ways: numerals in decreasing order are added, and numerals in increasing order are multiplied (calculated from left to right). Thus, Romraz ṛômraz (8+5) means "thirteen", JaGkov ģağkôv (3*6) means "eighteen", and JaGkovRom ģağkôvṛôm (3*6+8) means "26". In ordinary usage, however, the classifiers om ôm (8) and wam wam (64), optionally using the conjunction na "and", are used to build higher numerals up to 4,095 (JaGomnO5 ģağômnoś "378 (31)", JaGomnO5wam na Romraz ģağômnośwam na ṛômraz "37158 (1,997)"). These numerals may be used alone in counting, or in the genitive case as ordinals (5Ri JaGa śṛi ģağa "third eye").

Although octal is the normal base for Jarda numerals, other bases can also be used. Extra numerals up to 12 exist for this purpose: (9) koR kôṛ, (10) jum jum, (11) va2 vaź, and (12) 2ev źêv. From 13-24, reduplication is used to add 12 to the basic numeral: (13) juju juju, (14) RaRal ṛaṛal, (15) JaJaG ģaģağ, etc. These extra numerals can be used exactly like the basic numerals: for example, RalkoR ṛalkôṛ (2*9) means "eighteen", like Welsh dwynau. Higher classifiers are also available for some of the more commonly used bases: for instance, om ôm (108=8), wam wam (1008=64), tex têx (10,0008=4,096), and 2EG źeğ (100,000,0008=16,777,216) in octal, and ev êv (1012=12), JWn ģŭn (10012=144), kaf kaf (10,00012=20,736), and m85 mŏś (100,000,00012=429,981,696) in the duodecimal system. Higher numerals may require the classifier Je ģê, which indicates a multiple of the basic number (i.e., RalJe ṛalģê means "twice", and RomJe ṛômģê means "eight times"). For example, the decimal number "34 billion" is most easily expressed as JaGumkunJe jumgEn ģağumkunģê jumgen, or "34-times ten-hundredmillion". Alternatively, "34 billion" may be translated into octal (375,243,552,0008) and approximated as kunomwam2EG kunômwamźeğ (34.36 billion).


Jarda uses a system of numerical classifiers similar to those used in Chinese, Japanese, and other languages. To say "three apples", for instance, you would say JaGsan kim ģağsan kim "three-round-thing apple". "Four books" would be kunw8g $iR kunwŏg łiṛ "four-square-thing book". Each noun has a particular classifier that it is normally associated with, but classifiers can be substituted in unusual cases. For instance, "twenty-four blackbirds" is usually JaGomnen drun miK ģağômnên drun mið "three-eight-animal thrush is-black", but "four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie" is JaGomsib drun miK cuR 5aRv0 ģağômsib drun mið ķuṛ śaṛvö "three-eight-food.item thrush is-black is-baked pie-LOC". Here is a list of the most common classifiers used in Jarda along with the kinds of nouns they are typically used with.

nen nên

animals (including humans)

cin ķin

moving inanimate objects (vehicles, robots, wind)

vu vu

flat things (paper, tape, surface of the water)

w8g wŏg

square things (book, box, building)

san san

round things (pebble, egg, eye)

Ro ṛô

cylindrical things (can, tree trunk, neck)

tab tab

long, stringy things (wire, vine, hair)

cy ķü

pairs (shoes, gloves)

sib sib

food items (not covered by other classifiers, including animals as meat)

s8n sŏn

parts of the body, anatomical terms (not covered by other classifiers)

LEd ļed

valuable things (friends, treasures, happy occasions)


sensory experiences (sights, sounds, smells, textures)

la la

kinds, varieties, versions

zem zêm


Gom ğôm

time-related abstractions (moments, events, days)

um um


xRo xṛô


wa wa

generic classifier


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