Lindiga

Lindiga originated in the fall of 2002, and was one of the early influences on the Minza language. Lindiga has continued to develop independently of Minza, although the similarities are still easily recognizable. This page represents an updated version of some features of the language, which differs somewhat from earlier sketches of the language. As more is learned about this language, corrections and updates will be made to the existing pages.

Grammar notes

Nouns are inflected for case and number. The basic cases are ergative (-e), absolutive (no ending), genitive (-a or -t), dative (-o or -n), and locative (-u). Plurals of nouns are typically formed by adding a suffix (-k, -mi, -ra, -i, or -a), but some nouns have irregular plurals (kenet, pl. of kinat "fish", veun, pl. of vien "eye").

Verbs are inflected for person, number, voice, and mood/aspect. The personal pronouns and voice are expressed as prefixes; mood/aspect is expressed with suffixes.

Adjectives are inflected like nouns, and agree with the case of the noun they modify. The case endings for adjectives are -i (ergative, absolutive, genitive), -a (dative), and -ê (locative).

Basic word order is VSO or VOS. Adjectives follow nouns. Lindiga has prepositions and other features typical of head-initial languages. Examples:

Êiasku miese sêrreng. [eˈjɑsku ˈmiəzə ˈserəŋ]

i  -Ø  -iask-u  mies -e   sêrrng-Ø
3sE-3sA-eat -PF mouse-ERG cheese-ABS
"the mouse ate some cheese"

Êiasku sêrreng miese. [eˈjɑsku ˈserəŋ ˈmiəzə]

i  -Ø  -iask-u  sêrrng-Ø   mies -e
3sE-3sA-eat -PF cheese-ABS mouse-ERG
"a mouse ate the cheese"

Sastu nirskae prroni sipsi ita tuoku nisuai. [ˈsɑstu ˈɲiʂkɛ ˈbrɔɲi ˈʃipʃi ʔitɑ ˈtuəku ˈɲizwɛj]

Ø  -sast-u  nirska-e   prron-i   sips -i   ita  tuok-u   nisu-ai
3sA-jump-PF fox   -ERG brown-ERG quick-ERG over dog -LOC lazy-LOC
"the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog"

Kaperlínanu kam. [kɑpəˈɭinɑnu kɑm]

ka -perlína    -n    -u  kam-Ø
1sA-jelly.donut-DENOM-PF I  -ABS
"I am a jelly doughnut."