Tirĕhlat has a 31-letter alphabet of its own and a Romanized version using 27 letters, which omits the letters "c", "q", and "y". Pronunciation is as follows:
|a||a||[æ] after j;|
|[ɒ] after w;|
|i||i||[i] after j;|
|[j] after another vowel;|
|ihh||î||[ɨ] (in foreign words only); [əj] (native pronunciation).|
|u||u||[y] after j;|
|[w] after another vowel;|
|uh||û||[u] (in foreign words only); [əw] (native pronunciation).|
|r||r||[ɾ] between vowels;|
|n||n||[ŋ] before velars;|
|[ɲ] before palatal stops;|
|e||e||[e] after j;|
|o||o||[ø] after j;|
|[o] after w;|
|oh||ô||[o] in foreign words only; [ɒw] (native pronunciation).|
|j||j||[j] adjacent to a vowel;|
|[jə] elsewhere. (= jĕ)|
In the Romanized spelling, the letter "h" which indicates a voiceless consonant is omitted when it follows another consonant (which is always voiceless). This convention makes more efficient use of the Roman letters, as well as avoiding potential confusion with "sh" (an alternate spelling of "š"), or with spellings such as "th" and "ph" in other languages. Alternative spellings in parentheses may be used in environments such as e-mail, where the standard accent marks are unavailable.
Syllables in Tirĕhlat are heavy or light. A light syllable ends in a single vowel with a voiceless final consonant, or without a final consonant. A heavy syllable ends in a diphthong or voiced final consonant. The foreign sounds written with circles above the vowel letter (circumflexes in the Romanized version) are not considered as diphthongs for the purposes of this rule. Stress normally falls on the heavy syllable closest to the end of the word, or the first syllable of the word if all syllables are light. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by adding a circle under the stressed vowel (represented in romanization by an acute accent). Examples: pa-lan pa-lan [paˈɮan] "cloud", kWeR-tJu kwehr-tju [ˈkʍɛr̥tjy] "typewriter keyboard", kJu-zi-ka kju-zi-ka [ˈcyzɨka] "dandelion", kJe-lit kje-lit [ˈceɮɨt] "sparrow", tek-sas Tek-sas [ˈtɛksas] "Texas", Si-kaq-go Ši-ká-go [ʃɨˈkaɡɔ] "Chicago", o-xaI-Joh O-xai-jô (or o-xaqI-JaU O-xái-jaw) [ɔˈxæjjɒw] "Ohio".
The vowel [ə] (schwa), represented by the letter "ĕ", may be inserted between consonants to make the pronunciation easier. The schwa is never stressed, and in rapid speech can even be omitted. In Tirĕhlat spelling, this sound is only written explicitly between consonants that could otherwise be pronounced without an intervening vowel. Examples: lgzil lĕgĕzil [ɮəɡ(ə)ˈzɨɮ] "my face", rpnav rĕpĕnav [rəp(ə)ˈnav] "your forehead", tma tĕma [təˈma] "mole (the animal)", Wezl hwezĕl [ˈʍɛzəɮ] "day of the week", tezn tezĕn [ˈtɛzən] "plastic ball for gerbils", tluGJu tĕluğju [təˈɮuʝu] "quiet".
liZa liža [ˈɮɨʒa] "to see"; liZa-vaI liža-vai [ɮɨʒaˈvæj] "want to see"
marga marga [ˈmarɡa] "starling"; marga-daI marga-dai [marɡaˈdæj] "flock of starlings"
nJik njik [ˈɲik] "mouse"; nJik-E-pJak njik-ĕ-pjak [ˈɲikəpjæk] "Muridae"
faz faz [ˈfaz] "snow"; faz-E-reTi faz-ĕ-retsi [ˈfazəɾɛtsɨ] "so-called 'snow'"
Compounds are formed by adding the stem of the modifying word before the main word.
vezi vezi [ˈvɛzɨ] "orange (color)" + rin rin [ˈrɨn] "fish" = vezi-rin vezi-rin [vɛzɨˈɾɨn] "goldfish"
Domi dzomi [ˈdzɔmɨ] "to spin" + xaRS xahrš [ˈxar̥ʃ] "storm" = Domi-xaRS dzomi-xahrš [ˈdzɔmɨxar̥ʃ] "tornado"
Infixes are used to create new roots based on a modification of the basic concept expressed by the original word.
nJuri njuri [ˈɲyɾɨ] "blue"; nJu-za-ri nju-za-ri [ˈɲyzaɾɨ] "azure".
taS taš [ˈtaʃ] "fly"; ta-vi-S ta-vi-š [ˈtavɨʃ] "gnat, midge".
vili vili [ˈvɨɮɨ] "thousand"; vi-bu-li vi-bu-li [ˈvɨbuɮɨ] "million".
Gul ğul [ˈɣuɮ] "wolf"; Gu-Za-l ğu-ža-l [ɣuˈʒaɮ] "dog".
liZa liža [ˈɮɨʒa] "to see"; li-naI-Za li-nai-ža [ɮɨˈnæjʒa] "to watch".
Possessives are indicated by adding the prefix l- l(ĕ)- (my), r- r(ĕ)- (your) or j- j(ĕ)- (his, her, its) to the possessed noun. Certain nouns (such as body parts and kinship words) can only be used with a possessive prefix. For instance, my nose is lRiz lĕhriz and your nose is rRiz rĕhriz, but Riz hriz by itself doesn't mean "nose". It can be used in compounds such as RizEdaxu hrizĕdaxu "nasal consonant" or RizEbJuri SaGiGazar hrizĕbjuri šağiğazar "red-nosed reindeer". To talk about noses in general, it is necessary to say "someone's nose", using the generic possessive prefix x- x(ĕ)-.
Some names familiar in English will be given a modern American English pronunciation (or as close as Tirĕhlat can get). William Shakespeare, for instance, comes out as wiljĕm šéikspir, regardless of how Shakespeare himself may have pronounced the name. Only an expert on 16th century English pronunciation would care much about the correct pronunciation in this case; it's more useful to have a pronunciation that's recognizable to modern speakers. A more idiomatic Tirĕhlat version leaves off the accent mark and pronounces it "shake-SPEARE" (with a trilled "r")! Only a few well-known names are given native forms like this.
Scientific (or "Latin") names of animals and plants, and names of trademarked products, are left in their original spelling in the Roman alphabet. The usual conventions for scientific names are followed. If the Roman alphabet spelling of a trademarked name ever differs from one language to another, the English spelling is used, although accent marks are not omitted unnecessarily. Trademarks in other writing systems may be left in the original form, but a Romanized version should also be provided; not everyone will recognize 「豐田」 as "Toyota" or 「任天堂」 as "Nintendo", for instance.
Here are some names of states in the United States, to illustrate some of the issues associated with Tirĕhlat name borrowing. Some state names translate fairly easily into Tirĕhlat phonology. Michigan and Texas come out as mišigĕn and teksĕs. New Mexico is simply nu meksiko; the meanings of names aren't translated. Connecticut is kĕnerikĕt, which (though it looks strange) is pronounced [kəˈnɛɾɨkət], just as in American English. But there are various issues with other names.
The English and Tirĕhlat /l/ phonemes are quite different; Tirĕhlat /l/ is actually a lateral fricative [ɮ]. Between vowels where Tirĕhlat /r/ is pronounced [ɾ], either sound could be used as a substitute for English /l/. Tentatively, I've decided to use /l/ in stressed syllables and /r/ in unstressed syllables between vowels: Alaska is ĕljaskĕ, but California is kjarifornjĕ. On the other hand, Oklahoma is ouklĕxoumĕ (with a voiceless lateral fricative), since the unstressed /l/ is adjacent to another consonant.
Stress in Tirĕhlat is predictable. In many cases, it's fairly easy to get the stress put on the correct syllable. For instance, Illinois is irinoi, which is automatically pronounced with the stress on the final syllable. In other cases, it's possible to force the stress onto the correct syllable by adding /ɣ/, /j/, or /w/: Tennessee, for instance, is tenĕsij [tɛnəˈsɨj]. But a few names have been left with the stress on the "wrong" syllable: Mississippi is misisipi ['mɨsɨsɨpɨ].
Adjacent vowels are very rare in Tirĕhlat; a consonant such as /w/, /ɣ/, /j/ is inserted between them, as in the names for Iowa (ajĕwĕ), Ohio (oxaijô), and Louisiana (ruwizijağnĕ). Hawaii is especially problematic because of the stress on the second syllable; the Tirĕhlat translation xĕwai avoids the cumbersome spelling xĕwaiji by omitting the final -i.
English /æ/ generally corresponds to Tirĕhlat /ja/ (pronounced [jæ]); Kansas is kjanzĕs and Nebraska is nĕbrjaskĕ. But initial /æ/ is translated as /e/ in Alabama (erĕbjağmĕ).
English /r/ is generally translated as /r/ or /r̥/ in Tirĕhlat, even though the Tirĕhlat r sounds are very different from the American English sound. So Arkansas, for instance, is ahrkĕnso, with a voiceless trill! But in some cases, the /r/ is omitted if it would form a difficult cluster, as in the word "North". Actually, [nɔr̥ɬ] is probably not too difficult for a Tirĕhlat speaker (which would be me, with a little practice...), but [nɔɬ] sounds more like English. For similar reasons, New York is nu jôk ([nu jɒwk]), even though -hrk is a perfectly fine cluster in Tirĕhlat (occurring in such words as ihrk "cedar" and sahrk "key"), and Vermont is vĕmant.
le kaZasar mE Lav le kaža-sar mĕ hlav I-SUB eat -can OBJ glass "I can eat glass." mE Lav le kaZasar mĕ hlav le kaža-sar OBJ glass I-SUB eat -can "Glass I can eat." sE Zil Rastalan mE lak sĕ žil hrasta-lan mĕ lak SUB red:fox jump -PERF OBJ area:above "The red fox jumped over something."Adjectives and adverbs typically come before the words they modify, and prepositional phrases follow.
sE tiski marvi Zil Rastalan mE lak o Livi GuZal sĕ tiski marvi žil hrasta-lan mĕ lak o hlivi ğu-ža-l SUB quick brown fox jump -PERF OBJ over GEN lazy tame-wolf "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog."In rapid speech, mE lak o "mĕ lak o" is pronounced as one word, [mɮakə], with neither syllable stressed: this is written as m-lak-o <m-lak-o>.
afri symbol agi cube ahrka raccoon aima lemming aka magnet amasoi arch anavel Spanish moss auda opening aza newspaper baiža to imagine baku mermaid balği tired, fatigued bamra hollow bamu often banda kangaroo bar orangutan barji to walk baunui intentionally bavi hot bĕkazi monitor lizard bĕnak salad binda to own binga walnut tree binti armadillo birmala morning glory bjelna barnacle bjolga eel bjuri red blum word bluna ready boki to meet boša to happen brem heavy brež maple tree budu danger buki container buwja early daja example -dai (collective plural) daiga oil, petroleum daima slender loris daitu species daka to hunt dakiru brush-tailed possum daku to return, go back xĕ-dama nest dan lion xĕ-dar shell darga rhea dasu circle dav swan xĕ-dawar top part of the head deba season dekjur copper (metal) deku gecko denze elm tree dev rabbit dezga chestnut tree dĕvitu movie, motion picture dil to discuss xĕ-dim front part of body dižu time, interval of time djozi soft (not hard) dla two dom ring of a bell doza pocket gopher drambi sand, gravel; ground spices such as pepper drešĕla albatross dreva paint drik frog, toad drun thrush (bird) drus the rest duna sound dunažar timbre dzad sulfur dzal direction, bearing dzavi why? dzima shovel dzjar hill dzomi to rotate, spin, turn in place dzomixahrš tornado dzuki drain džahrpi angry džimu wet džutšu ginseng edri back, backward egi straight, direct elg rubber ereva mountain beaver ešta to steal eteri fir tree fada to leave (something) behind fali white fam clover fanda partridge farad cloth faz snow ferež bushy-tailed cloudrunner (kind of rat) fezga wombat fezi during frak cotton fram banana fila evening primrose fili fragile, delicate finu less fiwa to hate fjonda pillow fohr incidental garbage fopla ugly forla duiker foža eleven fulga soup xĕ-fuli sister furu shrew fuza web browser gad almond gadza to think gahrji 1,728 (123) gak duck gakji chicken gan morning gandja elephant gandjatsjek elephant tusk, ivory garbu jacamar gari strange xĕ-gahrk rump, buttocks gavi to exist gerĕv bus (vehicle) gĕzak sentence (series of one or more clauses) xĕ-gĕzil face (front part of head) gĕzilĕžar complexion ginžu today gir parrot gira island gjahrji insane gjan monkey gjaspa pelican gjaz beetle gjex kingfisher gjihrpa hamster gjolak tuna, mackerel gjĕuğ peanut gjundi butterfly, moth gliba to drink glibavit drink, beverage goba lead (metal) gorv law grak cactus gran rainbow grini weird grul garlic gugi flood guiru deep guna how? gur dove, pigeon guva peccary guvi angle gwan pig, boar xĕ-gwili daughter gworga grouse, turkey ğağ bug (insect) ğaidža one whose thoughtless actions annoy or endanger others ğaiša probable ğaki crossing, cross (shape) ğaluž french fries xĕ-ğan limb (arm or leg) ğar bowl ğat rail (bird) ğatu grammar ğav seal, sea lion ğazar deer ğazi to change ğazru tobacco ğaž a time, instance, occasion ğehli to swim ğel jay ğev wind ğini right, right-hand ğiwi liquid ğižu noise ğjuv fog ğjuz bed ğli grape ğul gray wolf ğumi long (duration) ğurma rumble ğuzja scent ğužal domestic dog hlaksit stilt (bird) xĕ-hlar chest (part of body) hlasa coffee hlat language, speech hlav glass (the material) hlehlka porcupine xĕ-hlik beak, bill, snout hlir elf, fairy (of roughly human size) hlivi lazy hlom flower hluxk smoke hluži smooth, even xĕ-hran chin hrasta to jump hravi to move xĕ-hrek horn (of animal) hrika lever hrin forest hriš unit of length: 11.67 cm (4.6") xĕ-hriz nose, trunk hrjandi important hrjena hole hrjiv simple hrjoba thick hrjon edge hruža cardinal, grosbeak hwezĕl day of the week xĕ-hwinza nostril hwiri dim, dark, unlit hwisp window (computer interface) hwizu fine, fee, tax hwjohrĕk chad hwjuhwju whistling sound idle boat, ship iki young imba to lie down ihrk cedar tree isağ hello! izi prototypical jagi hundred jahlpa to ride jahlpavit vehicle jai popcorn jaka to escape from jalga glove jaljĕka eagle jarma barbet jaza to laugh at jazwa bitter jega cost, price xĕ-jelwa waist jeri tear, teardrop jĕrağ ginger ale jodba equal to joira termite xĕ-jom blood jorv preposition jovaž 144, gross jugwa gravity juik squeak juliža sandwich jut place juvi open juzira brazil nut kabi overturned, upset, over kagi needle kahlpa leaf kahlxai lichen kaita electricity kaki where? kala dry land, ground kalažidri map kalgi goat kalir rail, railing kalu bass (fish) kami pure, refined kampa solid kari modern karza cassowary kasu bad kaval because kavi black kawar unit of mass: 3.056 kg (6.737 lb) kaxu to pull kazi to live; alive kaž twelve kaža to eat kažavit food keğja to announce xĕ-kehl hand kehlĕtiski nimble kelbu hornbill kepi hard, rigid keš stuff, material keza to search kezavog search engine kež dolphin (mammal) kĕmar rock, stone (material) kĕnagi brass (metal) kĕtaž hyrax kĕzer sheet klagi screw, bolt klagisahrk wrench klera to decide kliži degree (of temperature): 0.7 °C xĕ-kral son kreita wax xĕ-kriš wrist kwana to hear kwehrtju typewriter ki sun kid carrot kihl ice kihrpa hedgehog kihrta to heal kikri cricket (insect) kim apple kinta ceramic, porcelain kipa pistachio kira gem, jewel, precious stone kirba lake kispi foolish kit click, tick kitari chipmunk kitša to chew kitu to prefer kiv cave kiva female kivaroi woman kizi winged cat kjagi bent, curved kjalgi trogon xĕ-kjami father kjahlki plover kjelit sparrow (Old World) kjem three kjevik tinamou kjir goldfinch kjoxa to pack, stuff kjula cherry (fruit, tree) kjuri gerbil kjuvat snake kjuzika dandelion koba egg koga gull kohrš nut (edible) košo palm tree kota to carry koza sock, stocking kuhri fall, autumn (September 18 - December 21) kul plant kumbu full kuspe cockroach kuza grassland, prairie labu document lada to say, speak lagu nine laği bay lahrki unit of distance: 2.42 km (1.5 mi) lahrpa mangabey (monkey) lahrsa curassow laitši chemical lak area above, over lakari pronghorn (antelope) lali maybe lapi garment larami coast, shore xĕ-laris elbow, knee xĕ-larma finger laš fire, flame lašĕgar brazier lašĕrom volcano lava to obey laza ash tree xĕ-laža family le I, me lekta salmon, trout leli computer lesta badger leš spot, point, dot lešmi spotted lewja pizza lĕvan dead li one, single xĕ-lifi brother liğ goose limi spring (February 16 - May 10) lin bird linaiža to watch linjar dragon lipra rope liru quail liska stork lit month liz silver (metal) liža to see ljevna pheasant ljoka to climb ljorg chain, train lju ginger logri iguana lolga bottle, jar lom shadow lor wasp, bee, hornet lorna to aim loš rice xĕ-lox tail luğa number lumira violet, pansy lur clause luž ice cream mağ garden, park mağja to taste mahwa to imitate -mai no; not; negative maka to give malmo dragonfly xĕ-mana hair manu plain(s), flat land mar horse marĕt window marga starling marvi brown matar rhythm matsja behind mavi happy maxu air mazi to hurry, rush mazir Nikta, Neyasai, and related furry people maža chocolate megi to lose mekta adult mer skunk meski different, dissimilar, unlike meta butter meti tiny mex inside mĕfui soon mĕlav like, similar to mĕravna woodchuck, marmot mĕrimri to understand mĕzid unit of mass: 254.65 g (9.0 oz) mĕžiž political party mi according to (a source) midza alert mihrpa to let, allow mik water milak wall mina to have, possess (as a characteristic) minga bush mini to send minza bridge miramira mockingbird mirax spruce tree miša galago mivi kiwi (bird) miz honey miža seldom miži ring-tailed lemur mjari straight (not bent) mjavi old (age) mjelvi numbat mjenga merganser mjoi television set mjur ocelot, small cat mjuzi sleepy mjužar domestic cat mogla guanaco, camel mogu belly moki west, western moli grain monu patient mor bear (animal) mozu baby moža friend mu zero muja noodles muka light (opposed to heavy) munda ocean mungu menace muni dull, drab (of color) muntru luck mupuk hoopoe muru willow tree muzdu clay nabau sudden nada long ago nagi pecan nahr science, scientific study nai all, every naka muskrat nama to be (located) nami good nari light shade of color narji curse nasp job nasu to know naš when nausu to use navi firewheel, Indian blanket (flower) nawaroi boy xĕ-nax head nazma toucan nažir cicada neladak agama lizard nem mammal nenta fig nĕžaš a fool niba public nidi ten nifki to forget nihli east, eastern xĕ-nim wing nimru to deny ningi to compare ninja meaning ninjavor range of meaning (of a word, concept, etc.) nira dear niš pine tree niwi never niža raisin nja this njak nuthatch njami delicious njamutsi dense, crowded njarbi web robot, or spider njem bread nješĕla potato njik deer mouse xĕ-njom brain xĕ-njuk back (part of body) njum hum njunju flounder (fish) njuri blue njuzari sky blue, azure nogivak cormorant nogli big, large nohrk car, automobile noki shrike nona plum noža to experience, have (fun, a nice day, etc.) -nu- if nufa loud numu owl nusu silent nuxu already nuža to play (a game) ogohlko chameleon oki guinea pig omba almost omi wheel pağĕ baboon pak ant palan cloud xĕ-pam mouth paran should pari hierarchy parma sheep parza free-tailed bat pasiraži cucumber pata to crawl pauna yesterday pel bamboo pelma tower peri to touch xĕ-pĕnav forehead pral to take pranu front prinja to elect, vote for pihrki short (not physically long) xĕ-pili beard pira chinchilla piru when? pit beep pivri welcome pizai away pjak category pjale beech tree pjari brief, short pjektu apricot xĕ-pjel leg, walking limb po according to (the classification of) polju present time porva cabbage pulgi huge puna mushroom raga year ragajagi century ragavili millennium rai yes raigi to wear out rangi eclipse raskis pineapple rasta hawk rauki a drop of liquid rav lynx, bobcat ravik coneflower re you rega four -rei know how to relgahr tradition relva koala rem money ret reptile -retsi so-called rev world reži magenta, pink riga kobold rihl wheat xĕ-rim arm, grasping limb rin fish xĕ-rinja shoulder (body part) riva sky rjagi gear rjağu to contain rjaki steel rjeva to lead, manage, supervise rjewa to fight rjomas mayfly rjubi intelligent rjul worm rjuzu boa constrictor roğa beaver roi human rom mountain rondu on top of, resting on rota space, room rugi side, flank xĕ-ruma bark of a tree ruz religion -sa- can, able to sahrk key (for a lock) -sai more saken hemlock tree sali honey possum sampa grass, grain xĕ-san foot (body part) xĕ-sanĕlarma toe sanov transitive verb saran guitar sarga the surrounding area; around sargi to turn, revolve (around a point) sariga waxwing sariž lava saug group sedri long (of physical length) seğu soap selja game selva falcon seri river serik cashew seska crest, tuft sešta winter sĕlun whale sĕrum mint (plant) suira adverb (general modifier) swol bean sif kind, type, sort sika pocket mouse sil page, piece of paper sinda however siru to summon sitša subject, topic siva to operate, run sjam not enough, insufficient sjora otter sjula seed sjuri north, northern sjut eight skĕrjet goblin, orc skiri spoon smot law, government-enforced prohibition snarak cobra snogi brave sobi humanoid lizard solagi cod xĕ-sont bone sošu last, preceding sotu to request sowja mild star pepper (black) stehlka spider sudza poison sudža oxygen suga advice suli fairy (small) sumru pattern suvu to ask šada horn (musical instrument) šadžu habit šaği gray šaik summer šaim guess šaki left, left-hand šala dress, gown šalja dishwasher detergent šamar intransitive verb šandi without šar road, way, path šarĕzal way, course, route šaš birch tree šaši indivisible unit, atom šauna harmony šausu wrong šavi to rest, relax šawar art šeğ wood (material from trees) šekra hyena šenka unit of length: 0.97 cm (0.38") šĕlahri python šĕvax cage, pen šwigi healthy šwolga scrubfowl šikai here šiki to fly, glide (through air) šila sugar šili sweet, sugary xĕ-šim eye, eyeball šira long-tailed weasel šiv list, index škala to play (with a toy) škiri meerkat šmai always šnaga flaw, blemish šobla to enjoy šoika mystery šoka to kill šori tin (metal) štehlka mantis šuğ deliberate garbage šuma centaur šurdak puffin šuru door šušu plan šuv shallow šuxi annoying šuž rain šužĕpalan rain cloud -ta- must, need to taba to beat, pound tadru much tag meat tagu little, not much taka there taki far, distant tala male talaroi man talbu telephone tamar blanket tami wild, undomesticated tani half tanigira peninsula taparos filbert, hazelnut tahrka tenrec tarma pot taš fly (insect) tatša to bite taval nation taviš gnat, midge (small fly) xĕ-tax heart (cardiac) tazam leader tefka shirt tegla swallow (bird) teki sleet telif seven xĕ-temba house, home terema musical keyboard teri short (height) teza bicycle tezĕn transparent plastic ball for gerbils težaroi girl tĕ and (joins two verbs) tĕkir tarsier tĕluğju quiet, faint tĕma mole (animal) tĕmina farm tluju thin, slender tril wren trima to mix, combine, blend twer orange, citrus tibira dish tihlka jumping mouse tihwi ibis tika crystal tikal unit of mass: 21.22 g (0.75 oz) tikri little, small tiktir kinglet tila pleasure tilamag paradise timi sad, unhappy timui up, upwards tina music tinga ringtail, cacomistle tipa to enter tirĕhlat the Tirĕhlat language tirĕvor Tirevor (metaphorical place where Tirĕhlat is spoken) tiris towel tiski quick, fast tješpa jerboa tjevi body tjurik chickadee, titmouse to for toki to run tor metal xĕ-tov neck tovĕs quality, characteristic xĕ-toža enemy tsam phrase tsik rock, stone (distinct, countable object) tsil noun tsiri pale tsiva room, chamber xĕ-tsjek tooth, fang, tusk tsjuk chirp tsjura strawberry tsoš only tšak red bat tšima to kiss tuli detachable spirit tun to be (copula) turma hammer xĕ-tuva thumb ubi balance ugi wide, broad uhrpa flea uhrpasaran ukulele uka hat uluk lobster unja canyon ušu to help uzga truck uži near uživor neighborhood, vicinity va to do, perform, use -va- want to vahrp poplar, aspen vahrta to receive vaiko penguin vaki five valga to borrow valmak skink var crow, raven vasa cover vaskir backup, archival copy vazi south, southern vedi narrow xĕ-vegri stomach vel day, daytime velĕziozi nap velbi blueberry vengi herring veri striped veridan tiger verimar zebra vesti to dance veš paper towel vezi orange (color) vezirin goldfish veži deep sleep, unconscious vĕ at, in (place) vĕliri to breathe vĕnax hot-air balloon -vi of, from vibuli million vidu origin, source xĕ-vihr mother vihre sugar glider vihrpa disease viki mongoose viksa viper vilĕk fence vili thousand vima unit of length: 1.4 m (55.125") vini little, miniature vir lark vit thing, object viz exercise wheel for gerbils viža non-detachable spirit vjexta to drive (a car) xĕ-vjoka skin xĕ-vjom ear (body part) vjuzi pants, trousers vlui bottom vog computer program, application vol expensive vor range, place voralan bulbul vraš waterfall vrul rose (flower) vruva to boil vudza phantom vuli bass (low-pitched) vuljağ goodbye! vumi impatient vurik coat, jacket vuzi to sit wahrk coward wal bison watši minority wav to cook wažal domestic cattle wen to recognize wika to avoid wiša peach wjaki by means of woğju wine wohrpa tomato wuk cuckoo xafka sturgeon xafta to keep xahrš storm xak star (distant sun) xalan stairs xamba rhinoceros xan too much xantjo hickory xatsi to depend on xaxt oak tree, acorn xĕ-xaz throat xelva tanager xeški planet xeva bag, sack xĕmari 20,736 (124) xĕraksa shark xĕrol turtle xĕtan salt xikris grackle xira reward xiri yellow xjahri rough, uneven, jagged xjel tea xjetra guineafowl xjoma poem xjurva vampire bat xoja donkey, ass, burro xoi Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms. xos day, 24-hour period xubla to worry xufta screamer (bird) xulğa louse xuva to suppose zafiri iris (flower) zagi peas zağ buzz (sound) zahrk field zahrpa sex, gender zaima independent zait paper, thin cardboard zaki brush zali ceiling zami to buy zanda except for zani intense, strong zarvi bare zavi ahead, forward zed swift (bird) zeki to arrive zelba giraffe zem six zerevi airplane zetra to catch zevna desert zĕgaki similar zĕlir to accept zĕnal insect zĕrota centipede ziki grateful zimi green zin iron (metal) zinĕšar railroad zira to fear zirda kultarr ziriba sparrow (New World) zirik squirrel ziru computer file zispi grasshopper zivat anole lizard zizi mosquito zja very zjaka to swallow zjanjki nice, pleasant zjari free, unrestrained zjehrta thistle zjoma swamp, marsh zjozi to sleep zjozitsiva bedroom zjuhrp raspberry zjur crane (bird) zohrt hail (falling balls of ice) zorba shoe zovo sloth (animal) zuda set zuga cylinder zuhrx war zuhwu hour zul reference, pointer, hypertext link zuni Japanese dormouse zurna loon (bird) zwagi valley zwidži bewildered zworgi carp ža to make, cause xĕ-žadi dream žafi tall xĕ-žafta fur žagi greedy žaglu vulture (New World) žagri catfish žahr person žahrk plastic žaivi animal žaivimag zoo žalan moon, satellite (of a planet) žalĕka archive žali adorable žam gold (metal) žamez bow (used with arrows) žana heron žani tame, domesticated žar color xĕ-žarvi feather žata to lack žatri to be left over žavila flamingo žaxi sudden movement; to bolt, dart, dash žaža pocket žegila to achieve, accomplish žeku to pry open želena tree shrew žemi beautiful žen opossum žera furry people (Zireen and relatives) žetli valve žev fruit žĕdas next, the one immediately after žĕlozi bored žĕten gundi židri picture, image žiğan in exchange for žihr any (no particular one of) žil red fox xĕ-žilma iris (of eye) žim tree žin to extend xĕ-žina tongue žira to copulate žitra to hold žižu again žo and (joins two nouns) žoba date (fruit) žom World Wide Web žomĕliorg web ring žomĕsil web page žui away, from žuki railroad train žuli purple, violet žumi new, current žuni corn (maize) žurun berry