Tirĕhlat
tirELat

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Begun in the spring of 1999, Tirĕhlat is the latest in a series of personal languages that includes Gjarrda and a number of less successful language experiments. Since Gjarrda was redefined as a language of the Gjanarr raccoon people, many Gjarrda words referring to animals and plants of Earth have been out of place and needed a new home. Tirĕhlat absorbed most of these words, and the rest were redefined to fit the needs of an alien language. The Animal Names Project is also in the process of being translated into Tirĕhlat. Note that Tirĕhlat is still an evolving language, and everything from phonology to syntax to vocabulary is likely to change at any time! I've had a harder time settling on a design for Tirĕhlat than any of my other langs, but I'm convinced that allowing it to be flexible in the early stages will result in a better language in the long run. Or rather, at least I'm willing to try the experiment and see what comes out of it.

Spelling and phonology

The Tirĕhlat alphabet:

a i u r l n k m e o t v j d g Z s G z L x E b p w S f T R W D
a i u r l n k m e o t v j d g ž s ğ z hl x ĕ b p w š f ts hr hw dz

Tirĕhlat has a 31-letter alphabet of its own and a Romanized version using 27 letters, which omits the letters "c", "q", and "y". Pronunciation is as follows:

a a [æ] after j;
[ɒ] after w;
[a] elsewhere.
aI ai [æj]
aU au [ɒw]
i i [i] after j;
[j] after another vowel;
[ɨ] elsewhere.
ihh î [ɨ] (in foreign words only); [əj] (native pronunciation).
u u [y] after j;
[w] after another vowel;
[u] elsewhere.
uI ui [ʉj]
uh û [u] (in foreign words only); [əw] (native pronunciation).
r r [ɾ] between vowels;
[r] elsewhere.
rj rj [r̝]
l l [ɮ]
lj lj [ʎ̝]
n n [ŋ] before velars;
[ɲ] before palatal stops;
[n] elsewhere.
nj nj [ɲ]
k k [k]
kj kj [c]
m m [m]
e e [e] after j;
[ɛ] elsewhere.
eI ei [eː]
eU eu [ɛw]
o o [ø] after j;
[o] after w;
[ɔ] elsewhere.
oI oi [øj]
oU ou [oː]
oh ô [o] in foreign words only; [ɒw] (native pronunciation).
t t [t]
v v [v]
j j [j] adjacent to a vowel;
[jə] elsewhere. (= jĕ)
d d [d]
g g [ɡ]
gj gj [ɟ]
Z ž (zh) [ʐ]
s s [s]
sj sj [ɕ]
G ğ (gh) [ɣ]
Gj j (ghj) [ʝ]
z z [z]
zj zj [ʑ]
L hl [ɬ]
x x [x]
xj xj [ç]
E ĕ (è) [ə]
EI ĕi [əj]
EU ĕu [əw]
b b [b]
p p [p]
w w [w]
wj wj [ɥ]
S š (sh) [ʂ]
f f [f]
T ts [ts]
Tj tsj [tɕ]
R hr [r̥]
Rj hrj [r̝̊]
W hw [ʍ]
Wj hwj [ɥ̊]
D dz [dz]
Dj dzj [dʑ]

In the Romanized spelling, the letter "h" which indicates a voiceless consonant is omitted when it follows another consonant (which is always voiceless). This convention makes more efficient use of the Roman letters, as well as avoiding potential confusion with "sh" (an alternate spelling of "š"), or with spellings such as "th" and "ph" in other languages. Alternative spellings in parentheses may be used in environments such as e-mail, where the standard accent marks are unavailable.

Syllables in Tirĕhlat are heavy or light. A light syllable ends in a single vowel with a voiceless final consonant, or without a final consonant. A heavy syllable ends in a diphthong or voiced final consonant. The foreign sounds written with circles above the vowel letter (circumflexes in the Romanized version) are not considered as diphthongs for the purposes of this rule. Stress normally falls on the heavy syllable closest to the end of the word, or the first syllable of the word if all syllables are light. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by adding a circle under the stressed vowel (represented in romanization by an acute accent). Examples: pa-lan pa-lan [paˈɮan] "cloud", kWeR-tJu kwehr-tju [ˈkʍɛr̥tjy] "typewriter keyboard", kJu-zi-ka kju-zi-ka [ˈcyzɨka] "dandelion", kJe-lit kje-lit [ˈceɮɨt] "sparrow", tek-sas Tek-sas [ˈtɛksas] "Texas", Si-kaq-go Ši-ká-go [ʃɨˈkaɡɔ] "Chicago", o-xaI-Joh O-xai-jô (or o-xaqI-JaU O-xái-jaw) [ɔˈxæjjɒw] "Ohio".

The vowel [ə] (schwa), represented by the letter "ĕ", may be inserted between consonants to make the pronunciation easier. The schwa is never stressed, and in rapid speech can even be omitted. In Tirĕhlat spelling, this sound is only written explicitly between consonants that could otherwise be pronounced without an intervening vowel. Examples: lgzil lĕgĕzil [ɮəɡ(ə)ˈzɨɮ] "my face", rpnav rĕpĕnav [rəp(ə)ˈnav] "your forehead", tma tĕma [təˈma] "mole (the animal)", Wezl hwezĕl [ˈʍɛzəɮ] "day of the week", tezn tezĕn [ˈtɛzən] "plastic ball for gerbils", tluGJu tĕluğju [təˈɮuʝu] "quiet".

Morphology

Grammatical suffixes and classifiers are added to a stem ending in a vowel. If the word itself ends in a vowel, it is unchanged to form the stem; otherwise -ĕ is added. This -ĕ is always written explicitly in the Tirĕhlat alphabet spelling.

liZa liža [ˈɮɨʒa] "to see"; liZa-vaI liža-vai [ɮɨʒaˈvæj] "want to see"
marga marga [ˈmarɡa] "starling"; marga-daI marga-dai [marɡaˈdæj] "flock of starlings"
nJik njik [ˈɲik] "mouse"; nJik-E-pJak njik-ĕ-pjak [ˈɲikəpjæk] "Muridae"
faz faz [ˈfaz] "snow"; faz-E-reTi faz-ĕ-retsi [ˈfazəɾɛtsɨ] "so-called 'snow'"

Compounds are formed by adding the stem of the modifying word before the main word.

vezi vezi [ˈvɛzɨ] "orange (color)" + rin rin [ˈrɨn] "fish" = vezi-rin vezi-rin [vɛzɨˈɾɨn] "goldfish"
Domi dzomi [ˈdzɔmɨ] "to spin" + xaRS xahrš [ˈxar̥ʃ] "storm" = Domi-xaRS dzomi-xahrš [ˈdzɔmɨxar̥ʃ] "tornado"

Infixes are used to create new roots based on a modification of the basic concept expressed by the original word.

nJuri njuri [ˈɲyɾɨ] "blue"; nJu-za-ri nju-za-ri [ˈɲyzaɾɨ] "azure".
taS taš [ˈtaʃ] "fly"; ta-vi-S ta-vi-š [ˈtavɨʃ] "gnat, midge".
vili vili [ˈvɨɮɨ] "thousand"; vi-bu-li vi-bu-li [ˈvɨbuɮɨ] "million".
Gul ğul [ˈɣuɮ] "wolf"; Gu-Za-l ğu-ža-l [ɣuˈʒaɮ] "dog".
liZa liža [ˈɮɨʒa] "to see"; li-naI-Za li-nai-ža [ɮɨˈnæjʒa] "to watch".

Possessives are indicated by adding the prefix l- l(ĕ)- (my), r- r(ĕ)- (your) or j- j(ĕ)- (his, her, its) to the possessed noun. Certain nouns (such as body parts and kinship words) can only be used with a possessive prefix. For instance, my nose is lRiz lĕhriz and your nose is rRiz rĕhriz, but Riz hriz by itself doesn't mean "nose". It can be used in compounds such as RizEdaxu hrizĕdaxu "nasal consonant" or RizEbJuri SaGiGazar hrizĕbjuri šağiğazar "red-nosed reindeer". To talk about noses in general, it is necessary to say "someone's nose", using the generic possessive prefix x- x(ĕ)-.

Representing names

Personal names and place names are represented as nearly as possible in Tirĕhlat pronunciation. As far as possible, personal names should be pronounced according to the way the name's owner pronounces it, and place names as people who live there most commonly pronounce it. Since in most cases this pronunciation is difficult or impossible to determine without a considerable amount of effort (e.g., touring the world to determine the popular local pronunciations of names), any reasonable approximation of the pronunciation will suffice as a temporary measure. This is true even in English for unfamiliar names; before the correct pronunciation of "Lech Wałęsa" was widely known in the English-speaking parts of the world, you might hear Anglicized versions like [ˈlɛk wəˈlɛnsə], but gradually a form more like [ˈlɛk vəˈwɛnsə] became more prevalent (still not perfect, but about as close as American English can get). At the very least, I hope not to make mistakes as glaring as [sæɹəˈheivou] for Sarajevo! But there will inevitably be errors, so the Tirĕhlat names of places and people may end up being revised as I find better pronunciations.

Some names familiar in English will be given a modern American English pronunciation (or as close as Tirĕhlat can get). William Shakespeare, for instance, comes out as wiljĕm šéikspir, regardless of how Shakespeare himself may have pronounced the name. Only an expert on 16th century English pronunciation would care much about the correct pronunciation in this case; it's more useful to have a pronunciation that's recognizable to modern speakers. A more idiomatic Tirĕhlat version leaves off the accent mark and pronounces it "shake-SPEARE" (with a trilled "r")! Only a few well-known names are given native forms like this.

Scientific (or "Latin") names of animals and plants, and names of trademarked products, are left in their original spelling in the Roman alphabet. The usual conventions for scientific names are followed. If the Roman alphabet spelling of a trademarked name ever differs from one language to another, the English spelling is used, although accent marks are not omitted unnecessarily. Trademarks in other writing systems may be left in the original form, but a Romanized version should also be provided; not everyone will recognize 「豐田」 as "Toyota" or 「任天堂」 as "Nintendo", for instance.

Here are some names of states in the United States, to illustrate some of the issues associated with Tirĕhlat name borrowing. Some state names translate fairly easily into Tirĕhlat phonology. Michigan and Texas come out as mišigĕn and teksĕs. New Mexico is simply nu meksiko; the meanings of names aren't translated. Connecticut is kĕnerikĕt, which (though it looks strange) is pronounced [kəˈnɛɾɨkət], just as in American English. But there are various issues with other names.

The English and Tirĕhlat /l/ phonemes are quite different; Tirĕhlat /l/ is actually a lateral fricative [ɮ]. Between vowels where Tirĕhlat /r/ is pronounced [ɾ], either sound could be used as a substitute for English /l/. Tentatively, I've decided to use /l/ in stressed syllables and /r/ in unstressed syllables between vowels: Alaska is ĕljaskĕ, but California is kjarifornjĕ. On the other hand, Oklahoma is ouklĕxoumĕ (with a voiceless lateral fricative), since the unstressed /l/ is adjacent to another consonant.

Stress in Tirĕhlat is predictable. In many cases, it's fairly easy to get the stress put on the correct syllable. For instance, Illinois is irinoi, which is automatically pronounced with the stress on the final syllable. In other cases, it's possible to force the stress onto the correct syllable by adding /ɣ/, /j/, or /w/: Tennessee, for instance, is tenĕsij [tɛnəˈsɨj]. But a few names have been left with the stress on the "wrong" syllable: Mississippi is misisipi ['mɨsɨsɨpɨ].

Adjacent vowels are very rare in Tirĕhlat; a consonant such as /w/, /ɣ/, /j/ is inserted between them, as in the names for Iowa (ajĕwĕ), Ohio (oxaijô), and Louisiana (ruwizijağnĕ). Hawaii is especially problematic because of the stress on the second syllable; the Tirĕhlat translation xĕwai avoids the cumbersome spelling xĕwaiji by omitting the final -i.

English /æ/ generally corresponds to Tirĕhlat /ja/ (pronounced [jæ]); Kansas is kjanzĕs and Nebraska is nĕbrjaskĕ. But initial /æ/ is translated as /e/ in Alabama (erĕbjağmĕ).

English /r/ is generally translated as /r/ or /r̥/ in Tirĕhlat, even though the Tirĕhlat r sounds are very different from the American English sound. So Arkansas, for instance, is ahrkĕnso, with a voiceless trill! But in some cases, the /r/ is omitted if it would form a difficult cluster, as in the word "North". Actually, [nɔr̥ɬ] is probably not too difficult for a Tirĕhlat speaker (which would be me, with a little practice...), but [nɔɬ] sounds more like English. For similar reasons, New York is nu jôk ([nu jɒwk]), even though -hrk is a perfectly fine cluster in Tirĕhlat (occurring in such words as ihrk "cedar" and sahrk "key"), and Vermont is vĕmant.

Syntax

The basic unmarked word order is subject-verb-object, but the object may be moved before the subject for emphasis.
le kaZasar mE Lav
le    kaža-sar mĕ  hlav
I-SUB eat -can OBJ glass
"I can eat glass."

mE Lav le kaZasar
mĕ  hlav  le    kaža-sar
OBJ glass I-SUB eat -can
"Glass I can eat."

sE Zil Rastalan mE lak
sĕ  žil     hrasta-lan  mĕ  lak
SUB red:fox jump  -PERF OBJ area:above
"The red fox jumped over something."
Adjectives and adverbs typically come before the words they modify, and prepositional phrases follow.
sE tiski marvi Zil Rastalan mE lak o Livi GuZal
sĕ  tiski marvi žil hrasta-lan  mĕ  lak  o   hlivi ğu-ža-l
SUB quick brown fox jump  -PERF OBJ over GEN lazy  tame-wolf
"The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog."
In rapid speech, mE lak o "mĕ lak o" is pronounced as one word, [mɮakə], with neither syllable stressed: this is written as m-lak-o <m-lak-o>.

Vocabulary

afri         symbol
agi          cube
ahrka        raccoon
aima         lemming
aka          magnet
amasoi       arch
anavel       Spanish moss
auda         opening
aza          newspaper
baiža        to imagine
baku         mermaid
balği        tired, fatigued
bamra        hollow
bamu         often
banda        kangaroo
bar          orangutan
barji        to walk
baunui       intentionally
bavi         hot
bĕkazi       monitor lizard
bĕnak        salad
binda        to own
binga        walnut tree
binti        armadillo
birmala      morning glory
bjelna       barnacle
bjolga       eel
bjuri        red
blum         word
bluna        ready
boki         to meet
boša         to happen
brem         heavy
brež         maple tree
budu         danger
buki         container
buwja        early
daja         example
-dai         (collective plural)
daiga        oil, petroleum
daima        slender loris
daitu        species
daka         to hunt
dakiru       brush-tailed possum
daku         to return, go back
xĕ-dama      nest
dan          lion
xĕ-dar       shell
darga        rhea
dasu         circle
dav          swan
xĕ-dawar     top part of the head
deba         season
dekjur       copper (metal)
deku         gecko
denze        elm tree
dev          rabbit
dezga        chestnut tree
dĕvitu       movie, motion picture
dil          to discuss
xĕ-dim       front part of body
dižu         time, interval of time
djozi        soft (not hard)
dla          two
dom          ring of a bell
doza         pocket gopher
drambi       sand, gravel; ground spices such as pepper
drešĕla      albatross
dreva        paint
drik         frog, toad
drun         thrush (bird)
drus         the rest
duna         sound
dunažar      timbre
dzad         sulfur
dzal         direction, bearing
dzavi        why?
dzima        shovel
dzjar        hill
dzomi        to rotate, spin, turn in place
dzomixahrš   tornado
dzuki        drain
džahrpi      angry
džimu        wet
džutšu       ginseng
edri         back, backward
egi          straight, direct
elg          rubber
ereva        mountain beaver
ešta         to steal
eteri        fir tree
fada         to leave (something) behind
fali         white
fam          clover
fanda        partridge
farad        cloth
faz          snow
ferež        bushy-tailed cloudrunner (kind of rat)
fezga        wombat
fezi         during
frak         cotton
fram         banana
fila         evening primrose
fili         fragile, delicate
finu         less
fiwa         to hate
fjonda       pillow
fohr         incidental garbage
fopla        ugly
forla        duiker
foža         eleven
fulga        soup
xĕ-fuli      sister
furu         shrew
fuza         web browser
gad          almond
gadza        to think
gahrji       1,728 (123)
gak          duck
gakji        chicken
gan          morning
gandja       elephant
gandjatsjek  elephant tusk, ivory
garbu        jacamar
gari         strange
xĕ-gahrk     rump, buttocks
gavi         to exist
gerĕv        bus (vehicle)
gĕzak        sentence (series of one or more clauses)
xĕ-gĕzil     face (front part of head)
gĕzilĕžar    complexion
ginžu        today
gir          parrot
gira         island
gjahrji      insane
gjan         monkey
gjaspa       pelican
gjaz         beetle
gjex         kingfisher
gjihrpa      hamster
gjolak       tuna, mackerel
gjĕuğ        peanut
gjundi       butterfly, moth
gliba        to drink
glibavit     drink, beverage
goba         lead (metal)
gorv         law
grak         cactus
gran         rainbow
grini        weird
grul         garlic
gugi         flood
guiru        deep
guna         how?
gur          dove, pigeon
guva         peccary
guvi         angle
gwan         pig, boar
xĕ-gwili     daughter
gworga       grouse, turkey
ğağ          bug (insect)
ğaidža       one whose thoughtless actions annoy or endanger others
ğaiša        probable
ğaki         crossing, cross (shape)
ğaluž        french fries
xĕ-ğan       limb (arm or leg)
ğar          bowl
ğat          rail (bird)
ğatu         grammar
ğav          seal, sea lion
ğazar        deer
ğazi         to change
ğazru        tobacco
ğaž          a time, instance, occasion
ğehli        to swim
ğel          jay
ğev          wind
ğini         right, right-hand
ğiwi         liquid
ğižu         noise
ğjuv         fog
ğjuz         bed
ğli          grape
ğul          gray wolf
ğumi         long (duration)
ğurma        rumble
ğuzja        scent
ğužal        domestic dog
hlaksit      stilt (bird)
xĕ-hlar      chest (part of body)
hlasa        coffee
hlat         language, speech
hlav         glass (the material)
hlehlka      porcupine
xĕ-hlik      beak, bill, snout
hlir         elf, fairy (of roughly human size)
hlivi        lazy
hlom         flower
hluxk        smoke
hluži        smooth, even
xĕ-hran      chin
hrasta       to jump
hravi        to move
xĕ-hrek      horn (of animal)
hrika        lever
hrin         forest
hriš         unit of length: 11.67 cm (4.6")
xĕ-hriz      nose, trunk
hrjandi      important
hrjena       hole
hrjiv        simple
hrjoba       thick
hrjon        edge
hruža        cardinal, grosbeak
hwezĕl       day of the week
xĕ-hwinza    nostril
hwiri        dim, dark, unlit
hwisp        window (computer interface)
hwizu        fine, fee, tax
hwjohrĕk     chad
hwjuhwju     whistling sound
idle         boat, ship
iki          young
imba         to lie down
ihrk         cedar tree
isağ         hello!
izi          prototypical
jagi         hundred
jahlpa       to ride
jahlpavit    vehicle
jai          popcorn
jaka         to escape from
jalga        glove
jaljĕka      eagle
jarma        barbet
jaza         to laugh at
jazwa        bitter
jega         cost, price
xĕ-jelwa     waist
jeri         tear, teardrop
jĕrağ        ginger ale
jodba        equal to
joira        termite
xĕ-jom       blood
jorv         preposition
jovaž        144, gross
jugwa        gravity
juik         squeak
juliža       sandwich
jut          place
juvi         open
juzira       brazil nut
kabi         overturned, upset, over
kagi         needle
kahlpa       leaf
kahlxai      lichen
kaita        electricity
kaki         where?
kala         dry land, ground
kalažidri    map
kalgi        goat
kalir        rail, railing
kalu         bass (fish)
kami         pure, refined
kampa        solid
kari         modern
karza        cassowary
kasu         bad
kaval        because
kavi         black
kawar        unit of mass: 3.056 kg (6.737 lb)
kaxu         to pull
kazi         to live; alive
kaž          twelve
kaža         to eat
kažavit      food
keğja        to announce
xĕ-kehl      hand
kehlĕtiski   nimble
kelbu        hornbill
kepi         hard, rigid
keš          stuff, material
keza         to search
kezavog      search engine
kež          dolphin (mammal)
kĕmar        rock, stone (material)
kĕnagi       brass (metal)
kĕtaž        hyrax
kĕzer        sheet
klagi        screw, bolt
klagisahrk   wrench
klera        to decide
kliži        degree (of temperature): 0.7 °C
xĕ-kral      son
kreita       wax
xĕ-kriš      wrist
kwana        to hear
kwehrtju     typewriter
ki           sun
kid          carrot
kihl         ice
kihrpa       hedgehog
kihrta       to heal
kikri        cricket (insect)
kim          apple
kinta        ceramic, porcelain
kipa         pistachio
kira         gem, jewel, precious stone
kirba        lake
kispi        foolish
kit          click, tick
kitari       chipmunk
kitša        to chew
kitu         to prefer
kiv          cave
kiva         female
kivaroi      woman
kizi         winged cat
kjagi        bent, curved
kjalgi       trogon
xĕ-kjami     father
kjahlki      plover
kjelit       sparrow (Old World)
kjem         three
kjevik       tinamou
kjir         goldfinch
kjoxa        to pack, stuff
kjula        cherry (fruit, tree)
kjuri        gerbil
kjuvat       snake
kjuzika      dandelion
koba         egg
koga         gull
kohrš        nut (edible)
košo         palm tree
kota         to carry
koza         sock, stocking
kuhri        fall, autumn (September 18 - December 21)
kul          plant
kumbu        full
kuspe        cockroach
kuza         grassland, prairie
labu         document
lada         to say, speak
lagu         nine
laği         bay
lahrki       unit of distance: 2.42 km (1.5 mi)
lahrpa       mangabey (monkey)
lahrsa       curassow
laitši       chemical
lak          area above, over
lakari       pronghorn (antelope)
lali         maybe
lapi         garment
larami       coast, shore
xĕ-laris     elbow, knee
xĕ-larma     finger
laš          fire, flame
lašĕgar      brazier
lašĕrom      volcano
lava         to obey
laza         ash tree
xĕ-laža      family
le           I, me
lekta        salmon, trout
leli         computer
lesta        badger
leš          spot, point, dot
lešmi        spotted
lewja        pizza
lĕvan        dead
li           one, single
xĕ-lifi      brother
liğ          goose
limi         spring (February 16 - May 10)
lin          bird
linaiža      to watch
linjar       dragon
lipra        rope
liru         quail
liska        stork
lit          month
liz          silver (metal)
liža         to see
ljevna       pheasant
ljoka        to climb
ljorg        chain, train
lju          ginger
logri        iguana
lolga        bottle, jar
lom          shadow
lor          wasp, bee, hornet
lorna        to aim
loš          rice
xĕ-lox       tail
luğa         number
lumira       violet, pansy
lur          clause
luž          ice cream
mağ          garden, park
mağja        to taste
mahwa        to imitate
-mai         no; not; negative
maka         to give
malmo        dragonfly
xĕ-mana      hair
manu         plain(s), flat land
mar          horse
marĕt        window
marga        starling
marvi        brown
matar        rhythm
matsja       behind
mavi         happy
maxu         air
mazi         to hurry, rush
mazir        Nikta, Neyasai, and related furry people
maža         chocolate
megi         to lose
mekta        adult
mer          skunk
meski        different, dissimilar, unlike
meta         butter
meti         tiny
mex          inside
mĕfui        soon
mĕlav        like, similar to
mĕravna      woodchuck, marmot
mĕrimri      to understand
mĕzid        unit of mass: 254.65 g (9.0 oz)
mĕžiž        political party
mi           according to (a source)
midza        alert
mihrpa       to let, allow
mik          water
milak        wall
mina         to have, possess (as a characteristic)
minga        bush
mini         to send
minza        bridge
miramira     mockingbird
mirax        spruce tree
miša         galago
mivi         kiwi (bird)
miz          honey
miža         seldom
miži         ring-tailed lemur
mjari        straight (not bent)
mjavi        old (age)
mjelvi       numbat
mjenga       merganser
mjoi         television set
mjur         ocelot, small cat
mjuzi        sleepy
mjužar       domestic cat
mogla        guanaco, camel
mogu         belly
moki         west, western
moli         grain
monu         patient
mor          bear (animal)
mozu         baby
moža         friend
mu           zero
muja         noodles
muka         light (opposed to heavy)
munda        ocean
mungu        menace
muni         dull, drab (of color)
muntru       luck
mupuk        hoopoe
muru         willow tree
muzdu        clay
nabau        sudden
nada         long ago
nagi         pecan
nahr         science, scientific study
nai          all, every
naka         muskrat
nama         to be (located)
nami         good
nari         light shade of color
narji        curse
nasp         job
nasu         to know
naš          when
nausu        to use
navi         firewheel, Indian blanket (flower)
nawaroi      boy
xĕ-nax       head
nazma        toucan
nažir        cicada
neladak      agama lizard
nem          mammal
nenta        fig
nĕžaš        a fool
niba         public
nidi         ten
nifki        to forget
nihli        east, eastern
xĕ-nim       wing
nimru        to deny
ningi        to compare
ninja        meaning
ninjavor     range of meaning (of a word, concept, etc.)
nira         dear
niš          pine tree
niwi         never
niža         raisin
nja          this
njak         nuthatch
njami        delicious
njamutsi     dense, crowded
njarbi       web robot, or spider
njem         bread
nješĕla      potato
njik         deer mouse
xĕ-njom      brain
xĕ-njuk      back (part of body)
njum         hum
njunju       flounder (fish)
njuri        blue
njuzari      sky blue, azure
nogivak      cormorant
nogli        big, large
nohrk        car, automobile
noki         shrike
nona         plum
noža         to experience, have (fun, a nice day, etc.)
-nu-         if
nufa         loud
numu         owl
nusu         silent
nuxu         already
nuža         to play (a game)
ogohlko      chameleon
oki          guinea pig
omba         almost
omi          wheel
pağĕ         baboon
pak          ant
palan        cloud
xĕ-pam       mouth
paran        should
pari         hierarchy
parma        sheep
parza        free-tailed bat
pasiraži     cucumber
pata         to crawl
pauna        yesterday
pel          bamboo
pelma        tower
peri         to touch
xĕ-pĕnav     forehead
pral         to take
pranu        front
prinja       to elect, vote for
pihrki       short (not physically long)
xĕ-pili      beard
pira         chinchilla
piru         when?
pit          beep
pivri        welcome
pizai        away
pjak         category
pjale        beech tree
pjari        brief, short
pjektu       apricot
xĕ-pjel      leg, walking limb
po           according to (the classification of)
polju        present time
porva        cabbage
pulgi        huge
puna         mushroom
raga         year
ragajagi     century
ragavili     millennium
rai          yes
raigi        to wear out
rangi        eclipse
raskis       pineapple
rasta        hawk
rauki        a drop of liquid
rav          lynx, bobcat
ravik        coneflower
re           you
rega         four
-rei         know how to
relgahr      tradition
relva        koala
rem          money
ret          reptile
-retsi       so-called
rev          world
reži         magenta, pink
riga         kobold
rihl         wheat
xĕ-rim       arm, grasping limb
rin          fish
xĕ-rinja     shoulder (body part)
riva         sky
rjagi        gear
rjağu        to contain
rjaki        steel
rjeva        to lead, manage, supervise
rjewa        to fight
rjomas       mayfly
rjubi        intelligent
rjul         worm
rjuzu        boa constrictor
roğa         beaver
roi          human
rom          mountain
rondu        on top of, resting on
rota         space, room
rugi         side, flank
xĕ-ruma      bark of a tree
ruz          religion
-sa-         can, able to
sahrk        key (for a lock)
-sai         more
saken        hemlock tree
sali         honey possum
sampa        grass, grain
xĕ-san       foot (body part)
xĕ-sanĕlarma toe
sanov        transitive verb
saran        guitar
sarga        the surrounding area; around
sargi        to turn, revolve (around a point)
sariga       waxwing
sariž        lava
saug         group
sedri        long (of physical length)
seğu         soap
selja        game
selva        falcon
seri         river
serik        cashew
seska        crest, tuft
sešta        winter
sĕlun        whale
sĕrum        mint (plant)
suira        adverb (general modifier)
swol         bean
sif          kind, type, sort
sika         pocket mouse
sil          page, piece of paper
sinda        however
siru         to summon
sitša        subject, topic
siva         to operate, run
sjam         not enough, insufficient
sjora        otter
sjula        seed
sjuri        north, northern
sjut         eight
skĕrjet      goblin, orc
skiri        spoon
smot         law, government-enforced prohibition
snarak       cobra
snogi        brave
sobi         humanoid lizard
solagi       cod
xĕ-sont      bone
sošu         last, preceding
sotu         to request
sowja        mild
star         pepper (black)
stehlka      spider
sudza        poison
sudža        oxygen
suga         advice
suli         fairy (small)
sumru        pattern
suvu         to ask
šada         horn (musical instrument)
šadžu        habit
šaği         gray
šaik         summer
šaim         guess
šaki         left, left-hand
šala         dress, gown
šalja        dishwasher detergent
šamar        intransitive verb
šandi        without
šar          road, way, path
šarĕzal      way, course, route
šaš          birch tree
šaši         indivisible unit, atom
šauna        harmony
šausu        wrong
šavi         to rest, relax
šawar        art
šeğ          wood (material from trees)
šekra        hyena
šenka        unit of length: 0.97 cm (0.38")
šĕlahri      python
šĕvax        cage, pen
šwigi        healthy
šwolga       scrubfowl
šikai        here
šiki         to fly, glide (through air)
šila         sugar
šili         sweet, sugary
xĕ-šim       eye, eyeball
šira         long-tailed weasel
šiv          list, index
škala        to play (with a toy)
škiri        meerkat
šmai         always
šnaga        flaw, blemish
šobla        to enjoy
šoika        mystery
šoka         to kill
šori         tin (metal)
štehlka      mantis
šuğ          deliberate garbage
šuma         centaur
šurdak       puffin
šuru         door
šušu         plan
šuv          shallow
šuxi         annoying
šuž          rain
šužĕpalan    rain cloud
-ta-         must, need to
taba         to beat, pound
tadru        much
tag          meat
tagu         little, not much
taka         there
taki         far, distant
tala         male
talaroi      man
talbu        telephone
tamar        blanket
tami         wild, undomesticated
tani         half
tanigira     peninsula
taparos      filbert, hazelnut
tahrka       tenrec
tarma        pot
taš          fly (insect)
tatša        to bite
taval        nation
taviš        gnat, midge (small fly)
xĕ-tax       heart (cardiac)
tazam        leader
tefka        shirt
tegla        swallow (bird)
teki         sleet
telif        seven
xĕ-temba     house, home
terema       musical keyboard
teri         short (height)
teza         bicycle
tezĕn        transparent plastic ball for gerbils
težaroi      girl
tĕ           and (joins two verbs)
tĕkir        tarsier
tĕluğju      quiet, faint
tĕma         mole (animal)
tĕmina       farm
tluju        thin, slender
tril         wren
trima        to mix, combine, blend
twer         orange, citrus
tibira       dish
tihlka       jumping mouse
tihwi        ibis
tika         crystal
tikal        unit of mass: 21.22 g (0.75 oz)
tikri        little, small
tiktir       kinglet
tila         pleasure
tilamag      paradise
timi         sad, unhappy
timui        up, upwards
tina         music
tinga        ringtail, cacomistle
tipa         to enter
tirĕhlat     the Tirĕhlat language
tirĕvor      Tirevor (metaphorical place where Tirĕhlat is spoken)
tiris        towel
tiski        quick, fast
tješpa       jerboa
tjevi        body
tjurik       chickadee, titmouse
to           for
toki         to run
tor          metal
xĕ-tov       neck
tovĕs        quality, characteristic
xĕ-toža      enemy
tsam         phrase
tsik         rock, stone (distinct, countable object)
tsil         noun
tsiri        pale
tsiva        room, chamber
xĕ-tsjek     tooth, fang, tusk
tsjuk        chirp
tsjura       strawberry
tsoš         only
tšak         red bat
tšima        to kiss
tuli         detachable spirit
tun          to be (copula)
turma        hammer
xĕ-tuva      thumb
ubi          balance
ugi          wide, broad
uhrpa        flea
uhrpasaran   ukulele
uka          hat
uluk         lobster
unja         canyon
ušu          to help
uzga         truck
uži          near
uživor       neighborhood, vicinity
va           to do, perform, use
-va-         want to
vahrp        poplar, aspen
vahrta       to receive
vaiko        penguin
vaki         five
valga        to borrow
valmak       skink
var          crow, raven
vasa         cover
vaskir       backup, archival copy
vazi         south, southern
vedi         narrow
xĕ-vegri     stomach
vel          day, daytime
velĕziozi    nap
velbi        blueberry
vengi        herring
veri         striped
veridan      tiger
verimar      zebra
vesti        to dance
veš          paper towel
vezi         orange (color)
vezirin      goldfish
veži         deep sleep, unconscious
vĕ           at, in (place)
vĕliri       to breathe
vĕnax        hot-air balloon
-vi          of, from
vibuli       million
vidu         origin, source
xĕ-vihr      mother
vihre        sugar glider
vihrpa       disease
viki         mongoose
viksa        viper
vilĕk        fence
vili         thousand
vima         unit of length: 1.4 m (55.125")
vini         little, miniature
vir          lark
vit          thing, object
viz          exercise wheel for gerbils
viža         non-detachable spirit
vjexta       to drive (a car)
xĕ-vjoka     skin
xĕ-vjom      ear (body part)
vjuzi        pants, trousers
vlui         bottom
vog          computer program, application
vol          expensive
vor          range, place
voralan      bulbul
vraš         waterfall
vrul         rose (flower)
vruva        to boil
vudza        phantom
vuli         bass (low-pitched)
vuljağ       goodbye!
vumi         impatient
vurik        coat, jacket
vuzi         to sit
wahrk        coward
wal          bison
watši        minority
wav          to cook
wažal        domestic cattle
wen          to recognize
wika         to avoid
wiša         peach
wjaki        by means of
woğju        wine
wohrpa       tomato
wuk          cuckoo
xafka        sturgeon
xafta        to keep
xahrš        storm
xak          star (distant sun)
xalan        stairs
xamba        rhinoceros
xan          too much
xantjo       hickory
xatsi        to depend on
xaxt         oak tree, acorn
xĕ-xaz       throat
xelva        tanager
xeški        planet
xeva         bag, sack
xĕmari       20,736 (124)
xĕraksa      shark
xĕrol        turtle
xĕtan        salt
xikris       grackle
xira         reward
xiri         yellow
xjahri       rough, uneven, jagged
xjel         tea
xjetra       guineafowl
xjoma        poem
xjurva       vampire bat
xoja         donkey, ass, burro
xoi          Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms.
xos          day, 24-hour period
xubla        to worry
xufta        screamer (bird)
xulğa        louse
xuva         to suppose
zafiri       iris (flower)
zagi         peas
zağ          buzz (sound)
zahrk        field
zahrpa       sex, gender
zaima        independent
zait         paper, thin cardboard
zaki         brush
zali         ceiling
zami         to buy
zanda        except for
zani         intense, strong
zarvi        bare
zavi         ahead, forward
zed          swift (bird)
zeki         to arrive
zelba        giraffe
zem          six
zerevi       airplane
zetra        to catch
zevna        desert
zĕgaki       similar
zĕlir        to accept
zĕnal        insect
zĕrota       centipede
ziki         grateful
zimi         green
zin          iron (metal)
zinĕšar      railroad
zira         to fear
zirda        kultarr
ziriba       sparrow (New World)
zirik        squirrel
ziru         computer file
zispi        grasshopper
zivat        anole lizard
zizi         mosquito
zja          very
zjaka        to swallow
zjanjki      nice, pleasant
zjari        free, unrestrained
zjehrta      thistle
zjoma        swamp, marsh
zjozi        to sleep
zjozitsiva   bedroom
zjuhrp       raspberry
zjur         crane (bird)
zohrt        hail (falling balls of ice)
zorba        shoe
zovo         sloth (animal)
zuda         set
zuga         cylinder
zuhrx        war
zuhwu        hour
zul          reference, pointer, hypertext link
zuni         Japanese dormouse
zurna        loon (bird)
zwagi        valley
zwidži       bewildered
zworgi       carp
ža           to make, cause
xĕ-žadi      dream
žafi         tall
xĕ-žafta     fur
žagi         greedy
žaglu        vulture (New World)
žagri        catfish
žahr         person
žahrk        plastic
žaivi        animal
žaivimag     zoo
žalan        moon, satellite (of a planet)
žalĕka       archive
žali         adorable
žam          gold (metal)
žamez        bow (used with arrows)
žana         heron
žani         tame, domesticated
žar          color
xĕ-žarvi     feather
žata         to lack
žatri        to be left over
žavila       flamingo
žaxi         sudden movement; to bolt, dart, dash
žaža         pocket
žegila       to achieve, accomplish
žeku         to pry open
želena       tree shrew
žemi         beautiful
žen          opossum
žera         furry people (Zireen and relatives)
žetli        valve
žev          fruit
žĕdas        next, the one immediately after
žĕlozi       bored
žĕten        gundi
židri        picture, image
žiğan        in exchange for
žihr         any (no particular one of)
žil          red fox
xĕ-žilma     iris (of eye)
žim          tree
žin          to extend
xĕ-žina      tongue
žira         to copulate
žitra        to hold
žižu         again
žo           and (joins two nouns)
žoba         date (fruit)
žom          World Wide Web
žomĕliorg    web ring
žomĕsil      web page
žui          away, from
žuki         railroad train
žuli         purple, violet
žumi         new, current
žuni         corn (maize)
žurun        berry