Verbs, part 2

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Evidentials and tense

PastNonpast
inferential -mi -mi -ɬa -ła
hearsay -li -li -ja -ja
observation -ti -ti -dɛ -de
experience -ŕi -rhi -nɛ -ne
predictive -ki -ki -ʐa -ža
opinion -xa -kha -ɬi -łi
hypothetical -vu -vu -na -na

Tirëlat uses a verb suffix to mark evidentiality. Generally speaking, the evidential suffix specifies the source of information for a statement. The categories of evidential and tense are fused into a single morpheme, which follows the mood suffix if both are used on the same verb. Tirëlat has only two tenses, past and nonpast, but the difference between present and future can often be signified by the evidential or the aspect. The main verb in a sentence almost always has a mood suffix or an evidential/tense suffix, if not both. Leaving out both the mood and evidential/tense suffixes on a main verb is typically a sign of hesitant or incomplete ideas.

Inferential

The most common and least marked of the evidentials in Tirëlat, the inferential form signifies that the source of information is a mix of various sources along with deduction and common sense.

jkɬɛramin mɨ ʐrɛvari
jĕkłeramin my žrevari
he decided to fight

jmɜriɬan sɨ rɛvː
jĕmëriłan sy reev
the world is round

Hearsay

The hearsay evidential signifies that the information was obtained from someone else, either from hearing about it or finding it documented in writing. It is not necessarily meant to diminish the credibility of the statement.

vɨmikulin miː
vymikulin mii
they followed him (so the story goes)

jnamajan miri ʈɨnɖi ruːba
jĕnamajan miri tsyndzi ruuba
a wonderful palace stands there (so I hear)

Observation

The observation evidential indicates that the speaker personally observed the events in question.

saj linarː vɨʂikitin jari maj rɔmː
saj linaar vyšikitin jari maj room
the dragons have flown beyond the mountains (I saw them)

saj linarː vɨmikudɛz maj lɔm
saj linaar vymikudez maj lom
the dragons are following the shadows (I'm watching them)

Experience

The experience evidential is used only for describing events that the speaker has personally experienced. The first person singular prefix is frequently omitted with this form.

lparaŕiz vɜ dɛsa u xʋiri jutː
lĕpararhiz vë desa u khwiri juut
I was standing in the middle of a dark place

fadanɛz mɨ lruːba
fadanez my lĕruuba
I'm leaving my home behind

Predictive

The predictive form is most often used for describing future events. In the past, it can describe predictions of what might have happened.

saj ʐaŕ nadaj vɨminakin maj ŕadɛkɨ aj vɛː
saj žarh nadaj vyminakin maj rhadeky aj vee
the people long ago would have had names for them

su tɛɡla jziːkiʐan
su tegla jĕziikižan
the swallow will arrive

Opinion

The opinion evidential is used to describe personal opinions of the speaker.

saj zarvi ʈik vɨnjalaxan maj xinɖi ɬaʂpa
saj zarvi tsik vynjalakhan maj khindzi łašpa
the bare rocks seemed like cruel scimitars

sɨ xɛvː jliŕkaɬin
sy kheev jĕlirhkałin
the wind cries out

Hypothetical

The hypothetical form is used for hypothetical statements or assumptions.

ɬɨ mtɬakavun
ły mĕtłakavun
as if they had been stolen

sɨ nidu jminanan maj rɛɡa ruɡi
sy nidu jĕminanan maj rega rugi
assuming that a square has four sides


On to part 3 (polarity, aspect, participles, and compounds).