Verbs, part 3

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Polarity

The negative and interrogative suffixes are added after the evidential / tense suffix. They are grouped together here because only one of them is used at a time. Negative questions are formed by rephrasing to use a verb like "avoid" (vikka) or "fail" (khynu).

kɛŕɛɬanɛkaj
kerhełanekaj
it does not hurt me

jaː jtuːzan naʋ ʈaj?
jaa jĕtuuzan naw tsaj
is that the problem?

rxɨnuzan mɨ liʐari u jaː? (rliʐaxɨnuzan mɨ jaː?)
rĕkhynuzan my ližari u jaa? (rĕližakhynuzan my jaa?)
did you not see that?

Aspect

With the exception of stative verbs used as adjectives, and imperatives, all Tirëlat verbs have a final suffix which specifies the aspect of the verb or marks it as subjunctive. Generally speaking, the imperfective aspect is used for actions in progress, repeated or habitual actions, or temporary conditions. The perfective aspect refers to completed actions, actions as a whole, or permanent conditions. But the choice of aspect can be idiosyncratic and doesn't always correspond with any specific form in English.

su ʋal jŕastalin vɜ lak u ʐalanː
su wal jĕrhastalin vë lak u žalaan
the cow jumped over the moon

sɨ kinɛʐ jnamadɛz vɜ ɣlapi jrɔndu
sy kinež jĕnamadez vë ghlapi jĕrondu
the cup is on the table

The subjunctive form is used in subordinate clauses, or to express situations that are uncertain or have not yet occurred.

pa kɛvirubanɛkaj
pa kevirubanekaj
that they can't reach me

Participles

Participles in Tirëlat are non-finite verbs with an aspect suffix, but without a personal prefix or a tense / evidential suffix. They have various uses, such as modifying nouns.

saj zɔʂun juːɖazɡakiŋ vaz maj ʐnaʋku
saj zošun juudzazgakiŋ vaz maj žnawku
frozen fractals making spirals

A negative subjunctive participle can be used as a negative command.

vɔsakaj
vosakaj
don't hesitate

Compounds

Verb-verb compounds are used commonly in Tirëlat in cases where other languages might use infinitives. Tirelat does have a verbal noun using the suffix -ri, which has a similar role to the infinitive, but the verb-verb compounds are just as common.

vɨnaʂatiz mɨ falari / vɨfalanaʂatiz
vy-naša-tiz my falari / vy-fala-naša-tiz
they began to sprout