Causal Discussion Chapter Quiz

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  1. In the online textbook, the term causal discussion is used to mean:
    Discussion of the effects (consequences) of a situation (the cause)
    Discussion of the causes of a situation (the effect)
    Discussion of either causes or effects or both.
  2. Which of the following best explains the difference between a causal discussion and a process discussion?
    Process discussion focuses on the sequence of events; causal discussion, on why those events occur.
    Process discussion focuses on the sequence of events; causal discussion, on the level of certainty as to whether those events did in fact occur.
    Process discussion focuses on why certain events occur; causal discussion, on the sequence of those events.
    Process discussion focuses on the level of certainty as to whether those events did in fact occur; causal discussion, on the sequence of those events.
  3. Which of the following best defines what a speculative cause or effect is?
    A cause or effect about which there is a lack of certainty
    A cause or effect about which there is a high degree of certainty
    A cause or effect about which there is much public awareness
    A cause or effect about which there is little public awareness
  4. Consider this statement: The Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds into its flight after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. Which of the following lists, in the correct order, the cause and then the effect?
    Liftoff, O-ring failure
    Liftoff, Challenger disintegration
    Challenger disintegration, O-ring failure
    Challenger disintegration, liftoff
    O-ring failure, Challenger disintegration
    Challenger disintegration, O-ring failure
  5. Take a look at the following paragraphs. Which is the best example of a causal discussion?
    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a mechanism used to measure extremely weak signals, such as subtle changes in the human body's electromagnetic energy field. A SQUID can detect a change of energy as much as 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy that moves a compass needle. SQUIDs have been used for a variety of testing purposes that demand extreme sensitivity, including engineering, medical, and geological equipment. Because they measure changes in a magnetic field with such sensitivity, they do not have to come in contact with a system that they are testing.
    Oxygen concentration cells occur under metallic and nonmetallic deposits (dirt) on the metal surface and under faying surfaces such as riveted lap joints. Oxygen cells can also occur under gaskets, wood, rubber, plastic tape, and other materials when they are in contact with the metal surface. These areas of low-oxygen concentration cause corrosion. The severity of corrosion due to these conditions can be minimized by sealing, maintaining surfaces clean, and avoiding the use of material that permits wicking of moisture between faying surfaces.
    On each Mars Exploration Rover, the core structure is made of composite honeycomb material insulated with aerogel. This core body is topped with a triangular surface that is populated with three antennas, a camera mast and a panel of solar cells. Additional solar panels are connected by hinges to the edges of the triangle. The solar panels fold up to fit inside the lander for the trip to Mars and deploy to form a total area of 1.3 square meters (14 square feet) of three layer photovoltaic cells. Each layer is made of different materials: gallium indium phosphorus, gallium arsenide and germanium. The array can produce nearly 900 watt hours of energy per martian day, or sol.
    Pluto was officially proclaimed a planet in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory. However, in 2006, the International Astronomical Union approved and published a set of criteria for an astronomical object to be classified as a planet: (a) it must orbit the sun, (b) it must not be a satellite, (c) it must be massive enough for its own gravity to keep it round, and (d) it must be big enough to dominate its own orbit. Pluto does not meet this final requirement and thus cannot be considered a true planet according to the International Astronomical Union's definition.
  6. Imagine that you have a problem about which there is controversy as to what brought that problem about. In fact, there are three main theories about how that problem came about. Which of the following organizational approaches would use you in a causal discussion about that problem?
    Discussion of the problem; discussion of theory 1; discussion of theory 2; discussion of theory 3
    Discussion of theory 1; discussion of theory 2; discussion of theory 3; discussion of the problem
    Discussion of theory 1; discussion of theory 2; discussion of theory 3
    Discussion of theory 1; discussion of the problem; discussion of theory 2; discussion of theory 3
    Discussion of the problem; discussion of the most plausible theory
  7. The next questions are based on the following causal discussion:

    Terrance Joyce, who chairs the Woods Hole Physical Oceanography Department, believes that the atmospheric cooling caused by a thermohaline circulation shutdown could begin as soon as 2012. Joyce believes that once it does, it could take hundreds of years to reverse. In a recent letter to The New York Times, he challenged readers to recall the coldest winters in the Northeast, like those of 1936 and 1978 and then imagine recurring winters that are even colder—that would be what such a "little ice age" would feel like.

    A 5- to 10-degree drop in temperature could have devastating ecological and economical effects. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS), in a recent article titled "Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises," reports that the cost from agricultural losses alone could reach $100 billion to $200 billion and that damage to ecologies could be "vast and incalculable." NAS predict accelerated species extinctions, disappearing forests, low crop yields, inflated housing costs, and dwindling freshwater. The faster the climate change is, according to most predictions, the more dire the consequences will be.

    Another prevailing concern is the effect a little ice age would have on the world's poor. In a modern world with closed borders, those living in drastically changing climates would not have the option to simply pick up and move south like ancient tribes did during previous cooling periods. According to the NAS report, "To the extent that abrupt climate change may cause rapid and extensive changes of fortune for those who live off the land, the inability to migrate may remove one of the major safety nets for distressed people."

  8. Which of the following words describe the problem (effect) that the entire paragraph discusses?
    Devastating ecological effects
    Atmospheric cooling
    Devastating political and economic effects
    Thermohaline circulation shutdown
  9. Which of the following words describe the cause that the entire paragraph discusses?
    Devastating ecological effects
    Atmospheric cooling
    Devastating political and economic effects
    Thermohaline circulation shutdown
  10. Which of the following correctly lists the subsequent effects of the primary effect you identified in question 8?
    Devastating ecological effects
    Atmospheric cooling
    Devastating political and economic effects
    Thermohaline circulation shutdown
    A and C
    B and C
    A and B
    C and D
  11. Which of the following phrases is most notably undefined in the excerpt?
    Coldest winters in the Northeast
    Thermohaline circulation
    Devastating ecological and economical effects
    Abrupt climate change

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