FrameMaker 7.0 Tutorial:
Book Building & Tables of Contents

Developed for advanced documentation students by
David A. McMurrey Jana Owens
Spring 2004
Jacqueline J. Pulido
Fall 2000
Thomas A. Moore

For additional study materials, refer to the FrameMaker resource page. Got a question about this tutorial?
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FrameMaker version 9 tutorials are now available.

This tutorial is provided for advanced documentation students on a free, as-is basis, without guarantee of accuracy. If you find any errors or think we should include other tasks, let us know!

This tutorial discusses the following topics:

Subsequent tutorials focus on tags, tables, anchored frames, graphics, templates, master pages, reference pages, cross-references, indexes, variable text, book building, conversion techniques, and structured documents. These tutorials provide an overview of each topic discussed. If you required information about advanced FrameMaker topics, refer to the Adobe FrameMaker User Guide or Adobe FrameMaker Classroom in a Book for the current version of FrameMaker.

Note: For the sake of brevity, we use an abbreviated style for menu commands throughout this lesson. For example, "Select File > New" means "Select New from the File menu."


A book is a FrameMaker file that joins several files together to form one document. The book file includes the filenames of the individual documents, as well as any generated files. (For more information about indexes as generated files, see Indexes.)

The files in a book can be numbered continuously throughout the book, or they can contain their own number settings and pagination. When you update a book, the generated files, as well as cross-references and variables, are updated across all documents.

A table of contents can be generated from either a single document or a book. The document or book from which the table of contents is generated is called the source document. For this tutorial, the source document has already been created for you.

Downloading and Saving the Source Documents

To download the source documents:
  1. Select each of the following links and save them one your computer:

    Note: Earlier versions of Netscape may attempt to display this file directly. To force Netscape to download this file, right-click the link above, and select Save Link Target As.

  2. Select the directory in which to save the file, and click Save.

    Note: If you are working in the TCM computer lab, save the file to your lab account. If you do not have a lab account, please contact your instructor.

To save the source documents:

  1. Open FrameMaker, and select File > Open.

  2. Change to the directory in which you saved the source documents.

  3. Open each .mif file, and select File > Save As.

  4. Select the directory in which to save each file.

  5. In the File name box, change .mif to .fm.

  6. Click Save.

Adding Automated Chapter Numbers and Footers to Files

Modify the three files so that their chapter numbers and footers will increment and update automatically:

  1. Open

  2. With your cursor located in the text at the top of the document (either a Heading1 or Title tag), open the Paragraph Designer.

  3. In the autonumbering blank of the Numbering tab, type Chapter <chapnum>.

  4. Click Update All.

  5. Click Format > Page Layout > Pagination and select Double Sided and Make Page Count Even.

  6. Switch to master pages and set a left-aligned page number in the footer of the left page.

  7. In that same footer, add a space, an em dash (Ctrl+q, Shift+q), and the book title to the right of the page number. The result should look similar to the following:

  8. Set a right-aligned page number in the footer of the right page.

  9. In that same footer, add the variable for the chapter title: click Special > Variable and select Running H/F 1. Click Edit Definition, change the name of the paragraph tag in brackets to Heading1 (or whatever your document uses for the chapter title). Click Edit and then Insert. The result should look similar to the following:

  10. Open and

  11. With as the current file, click File > Import > Format and import everything from into the Do the same for

Setting Up By-Chapter Page Numbering

To enable each file in your book to pick up the chapter number automatically and add it it to the page number in the footer:

  1. Go to the master pages in one of your files.

  2. Double-click the # (page number symbol).

  3. In the variable popup, select Current Page.

  4. Click Edit Definition and add <$chapnum>- just in front of <$curpagenum>:

  5. Click Edit and then Replace.

Building Book Files

Next, build a book by adding source files to the book file.

To build a book file:

  1. Select Window > to view the file.

  2. Select File > New > Book.

    The following message appears.

  3. Click Yes to continue.

    Your new book contains one document file.
    New Book window

  4. Select File > Save Book.

  5. In the File Name box, type, and click Save.

    Note: Notice that the file menu choices are different depending on the file that is currently active.

    This image represents the file menu with a document active.
    Document menu bar

    This image represents the file menu with a book active.
    Book menu bar

  6. With the book file active, select Add > Files (or click Add File in the book window).

  7. Select, and click Add.

    The file is added to the book immediately following

  8. Repeat the previous steps to add to your book.

    Your book should look similar to the following.
    Book file

Tip: You can rearrange files within the book window by selecting the file and dragging it to a new location. To delete a file from the book, select the file and click located at the bottom of the book window.

Setting up Page Numbering and Pagination

After you the add documents to your book file, you can set up page numbers and pagination to be consistent across all documents in the book.

To set up page numbering:
  1. In the book window, select, and then select Format > Document > Numbering.

    The Numbering dialog box appears.
    Numbering dialog box

  2. From the Chapter tab, select the Chapter # option, and type 1 in the text box.

  3. From the Format: pull-down menu, select Numeric [14].

  4. From the Page tab, select the First Page # option, and type 1 in the text box.

  5. From the Format pull-down menu, select Numeric [14].

  6. Click Set.

  7. In the book window, select, and then select Format > Document > Numbering.

  8. From the Chapter tab, select Continue Numbering From Previous File in Book.

  9. From the Page tab, select Continue Numbering From Previous Page in Book, and click Set.

  10. Repeat the previous steps to set the page numbering for
To set up pagination, do the following to each of the three files:
  1. Select Format > Page Layout > Pagination.

  2. From the Pagination dialog box, select Double Sided.

  3. From the 1st Page Side pull-down menu, select Right, and click Set.

Generating the Table of Contents

In this section, you will learn how to generate a table of contents (TOC) for a single document.

To generate a table of contents:
  1. Select Special > Table of Contents, and click Yes to create a standalone Table of Contents for this document.

    The Set Up Table of Contents dialog box appears.

  2. In the Don't Include list, select the Heading1 and Heading2 paragraph tags and press the left arrow to include them in the Include Paragraphs Tagged list.

  3. Click Set.

A new file containing the table of contents appears. Framemaker names this file using the name of the source document plus the suffix "TOC."

Formatting the Table of Contents

To make your table of contents more readable, you must format the contents. This section discusses procedures necessary to format your table of contents.

This section discusses the following topics:

Changing Paragraph Formats and Fonts

To change paragraph formats in the TOC:
  1. Open the Paragraph Designer (Ctrl + M).

  2. Place your cursor in the first paragraph.

    This paragraph is called Heading1TOC and contains the text "Headings"

  3. In the Paragraph Designer, click the Basic tab, and select 14.0 pt (if it is not already set) from the Space Above Pgf pull-down menu.

  4. Click the Default Font tab.

  5. Change Family to Arial and Size to 14 pt, and then click Update All.

  6. Place your cursor in the second paragraph, which should be a Heading2TOC.

  7. In the Default Font properties box, change Family to Arial and Size to 12 pt, and then click Update All.

    All Heading2TOC paragraph tags change to Arial 12 pt.

  8. Within the Indents area, type 0.5 in the First box, and then type 0.5 in the Left box.

  9. Click Update All, and save your document.

  10. To see the results of some TOC formatting, you must make the book window current and click Edit > Update Book.

Adding Tabs and Tab Leaders

To add a tab stop and tab leader:
  1. Place your cursor in the first paragraph (Heading1TOC).

  2. Insert a right tab and leader:

    1. Within the Paragraph Catalog, click Edit located below the Tab Stops area on the Basic tab.
    2. In the New Position box, type 5.5.
    3. Within the Alignment area, select the Right radio button.
    4. Create another tab, this one 5.1, left-aligned, with a leader-dot style.
    5. Click Continue, and then click Update All.

  3. Repeat the steps above to add a right tab to the Heading2TOC paragraph format. The result should look similar to the following (although some page numbers have been invented):

  4. Close the Paragraph Designer dialog box.

  5. Make sure the tab symbols are visible (select View > Text Symbols), and place your cursor in the first paragraph between the word "Headings" and the page number "1."

  6. Press the Tab key.

    The page numbers should be right-aligned preceded by a dot leader.

  7. Repeat the steps above to insert a tab between the remaining paragraphs.

Note: These changes affect the paragraph tags and are now part of this document file. Whenever you update the table of contents, it will retain its formatting. However, the tab symbols that you typed between the text and the page number are not part of the paragraph tag. If you want FrameMaker to automatically insert your tab symbols after a TOC update, you must modify the reference page.

To ensure that the dot-leader tabs are retained in updates of the TOC, modify the TOC reference page:
  1. Select View > Reference Pages.

  2. Scroll down to the TOC reference page. (The title of the reference page appears in the FrameMaker scroll bar.)
    status bar

    The reference page should look similar to the following.
    TOC Reference Page

  3. Place your cursor in the first paragraph between the <$paratext> and the <$pagenum> building blocks.

    This paragraph should be Heading2TOC. This may seem backwards: the items are listed in reverse order.

  4. Delete the space between the building blocks, and press the Tab key.

  5. Repeat the steps above for Heading1TOC.

  6. Select View > Body Pages to return to the body pages, and then save your document.

    Your table of contents should look similar to the following.

If you look closely at the preceding, you notice that the dot leaders of the first-level items do not align evenly with those of the second-level items.

There is no viable solution for the alignment problem involving dot leaders. However, you’ll notice that TOCs typically do not display page numbers or dot leaders for the chapter title. To make this change:

  1. Open the TOC file.

  2. Go to the TOC page of the reference pages. For the basics on reference pages, see the reference page tutorial.

  3. Find the Heading1TOC tag and delete the dots leaders and the <$pagenum> building block. Your results should like similar to the following:

  4. TOC

Displaying Chapter Numbers

To display chapter numbers in the table of contents and add some interesting format:
  1. Create a character tag named blue_bold that uses Arial 16pt blue bold.

  2. In the Paragraph Designer for Heading1TOC, add a left tab of 0.5 inches.

  3. In the reference pages for the TOC, type <$chapnum>, highlight it, and apply the blue_bold character tag to it.

  4. Between <$chapnum> and <$paratext> insert a tab. The results should resemble the following:

  5. TOC
Note: Using <n+> in the Numbering tab of the paragraph tag for Heading1TOC is an alternative the preceding steps. However, if you change numbering style (for example, uppercase letters as opposed to arabic numerals), the TOC will not update accordingly.

Inserting a Title

To insert a title for the table of contents:
  1. Place your cursor at the very beginning of the first paragraph. (Press the Home key to ensure you are at the beginning.)

  2. Type the word CONTENTS, and press Enter.

  3. Return to the line you just typed, and place your cursor anywhere in this paragraph.

  4. Apply the paragraph tag Title to this paragraph, and save your document.

Updating the Table of Contents

As your document changes, you must update your table of contents so that it remains current.

To update the table of contents:
  1. Select the main book file in the book window.
  2. Select Edit > Update Book.
  3. Select your book in the Generate window.
  4. Press update.
    FrameMaker updates your table of contents to reflect the change.

    Modified TOC

To enable an update to work when the chapter order changes:
  1. Go to the master pages, press Enter to create a new line.
  2. Apply the tag in the TOC that contains the chapter number (for example, Heading1TOC).
  3. On this line, enter something like Chapter <$chapnum>. <$paratext></span> to it.
  4. Test this by switching the order of a chapter or two in your .book file.

    Remember: if one of the files you switch is the first chapter file, you must change its Chapter and Page settings to Continue from previous. If you have a new first chapter, one that was originally later in the .book file, you must change its Chapter and Page settings to 1.
In this tutorial, you learned how to generate a table of contents, customize the formatting of the contents page, and update the table of contents.

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