FrameMaker 9.0 Tutorial:
Table of Contents

 

Developed for advanced documentation students by
David A. McMurrey  
Jill Brockmann
Spring 2010
Jana Owens
Spring 2004
Jacqueline J. Pulido
Fall 2000
Thomas A. Moore
Spring 1998
For additional study materials, refer to the FrameMaker resource page.


This tutorial is provided for advanced documentation students on a free, as-is basis, without guarantee of accuracy. If you find any errors or think we should include other tasks, let us know!

This tutorial discusses the following topics:

Note: For the sake of brevity, we use an abbreviated style for menu commands throughout this lesson. For example, "Select File > New" means "Select New from the File menu."

Introduction

A table of contents can be generated from either a single document or a book. The document or book from which the table of contents is generated is called the source document. For this tutorial, the source document will be the files named notices.fm (a single document) and myBook.book (a .book file with multiple files contained within it). Consult the previous tutorial, Book Building, for the details of these files.

Generating the Table of Contents for a Single Document

In this section, you will learn how to generate a table of contents (TOC) for a single document. The source document used in this exercise is notices.fm, which was created in the provious tutorial.

From the FrameMaker dashboard, open the file notices.fm. The dashboard should appear as follows:




To generate a table of contents:

  1. Select Special > Table of Contents. For this exercise, a Table of Contents will be created for just this one document. Click Yes to create a standalone Table of Contents when you receive the message below:



    The Set Up Table of Contents dialog box appears as follows:



  2. Use the left and right arrows to move the paragraph tags named Heading1, Heading2 and Heading3 in to the Include Paragraphs Tagged: column. Click the Create Hypertext Links box.

  3. Click Set.

A new file containing the table of contents appears. Framemaker names this file using a combination of the name of the source document (notices.fm) plus the suffix "TOC." The name of the new file is noticesTOC.fm and will appear as follows:



The document window now has two files open (notices.fm and noticesTOC.fm). When the document window for the file named noticesTOC.fm is primary, then you will notice that there is an entry for each of the three paragraph tags that were designated to be "included" in the formatting of the Table of Contents. There are entries for Heading1, Heading2, and Heading3 as shown in the graphic above.

All of the entries for the heading paragraph tags look the same and there is no way to tell which entry is a Heading1, Heading2 or Heading3. You will format this TOC in the next exercise so that it is easier to read.

Formatting the Table of Contents

To make your Table of Contents more readable ans user friendly, you must format the contents. This section discusses the procedures necessary to format your Table of Contents.

This section discusses the following topics:

Changing Paragraph Formats and Fonts

To change paragraph formats in the TOC:

  1. Open the Paragraph Designer (Ctrl + M).

  2. Place your cursor in the first paragraph.

    This paragraph is called Heading1TOC and contains the text "Special Notices."

  3. In the Paragraph Designer, click the Basic tab, and select 14.0 pt (if it is not already set) from the Space Above Pgf pull-down menu. The Apply Changes dialog box will appear as follows:



  4. Click Update All to proceed.

  5. Click the Default Font tab.

  6. Change Family to Arial, the Size to 18 pt and then click Update All. The document window will now reflect the formatting changes to all Heading1 paragraph tags and will appear as follows:



  7. Place your cursor in the second paragraph, which should be assigned a Heading2TOC paragraph tag.

  8. In the Default Font properties box, change Family to Arial and Size to 12 pt, and then click Update All.

    All Heading2TOC paragraph tags will change to Arial 12 pt and will appear as follows:



  9. On the Basic Tab, complete the Indents and Spacing fields as follows:


  10. Click Update All, and save your document. The noticesTOC.fm file document window should appear similar to the following:

Generating the Table of Contents for a Book

In this section, you will learn how to generate a Table of Contents (TOC) for a book. The source documents used in this exercise are headings.fm, lists.fm and notices.fm. To open all three files, and the book that includes all three files, find the file named myBook.book that was created in the previous tutorial.

From the FrameMaker dashboard, open the file myBook.book. The dashboard should appear as follows:

Once the file myBook.book is opened, the document window will appear as follows:

  1. While the book file is highlighted, click Add > Table of Contents.

    The Set Up Table of Contents dialog box will open automatically. Previously, you formatted the TOC for a single document. Now, you will format the TOC for a book (which contains three documents or files, in this case). The formatting for the book TOC will be the same as for the single document.

    The Set Up Table of Contents dialog box should be completed as follows:



    Notice the Add File: field now shows the choice to add the TOC Before headings.fm. This means that once the TOC is formatted and the book file is updated, the TOC will appear in the position immediately before the first chapter (Headings) of the book.

  2. The Update Book dialog box will open and the new file named myBookTOC.fm will appear in the position just before Chapter 1 (Headings). Click Update. The Update Book dialog box will appear as follows:



    You may receive a message from FrameMaker regarding Inconsistent Numbering Properties. If so, click Continue to allow FrameMaker to use the numbering properties specified in the .book file. The message will appear as follows:



  3. The document window for myBookTOC.fm will appear and show the Table of Contents in its raw state. There have not been any formatting changes to make the TOC more readable. The listing for Chapter 1 (Headings) and Chapter 2 (Special Notices) appears with the same font and point size as those that have a paragraph tag Heading2 and Heading3 assigned.

    The document window will appear as follows:



  4. With the cursor located in a Heading1 paragraph tag, open Paragraph Designer and change the settings in the Default Tab as follows:



    Following the above formatting changes, all lines of text that have a Heading1 paragraph tag assigned to them will appear as follows:

The process for changing the formatting for the Heading2 and Heading3 paragraph tags in the .book file is the same as the process for making the changes in the single document. Re-visit the steps needed to add a left indent to the Heading2 and Heading3 paragraph tags. The example below shows two different indent levels. You may wish to choose a .05" indent for the Heading2 text and a .75" indent for the Heading3 text as shown in the example below.

Click View > Text Symbols to turn off the text symbols. The TOC document window should appear as follows:



Notice that the page numbers follow the heading text immediately and are difficult to read. The process of fixing this will be covered in the next exercise.

Fixing an Error in Text

There are times when a document has an error in the text or when a change needs to be made to a heading that has already been added to the TOC. The following graphic shows an error in the TOC for the book:



The line of text in the TOC should read, "Specific Format and Style 2." Because the line of text in the file headings.fm is wrong, the entry in the TOC is wrong and must be changed.

To fix this error, complete the following steps:

  1. Open headings.fm (or make the file primary in the document window) and scroll down to the heading that reads, "Headings: Specific Format and Style." Delete the text "Headings:" from the line of text (heading).

  2. Save the file headings.fm.

  3. Click the Update Book icon in the upper left corner of the document window as follows:



    Once the change has been made to the file headings.fm, and the TOC has been updated, the TOC will now show the corrected listing for the section and will appear as the follows:



    There is another error in the text of the file Lists.fm. The file needs to be corrected and the TOC needs to be updated to reflect that change in order to eliminate this error. Before the correction, the TOC appears as follows:



    Follow the same steps from the previous exercise and change the listing in the TOC to correctly appear as follows:

Adding Tabs and Tab Leaders

To add a tab stop and tab leader:

  1. Place your cursor in the first paragraph (Heading1TOC).

  2. Insert a right tab and leader:

    1. Within the Paragraph Catalog, click Edit located below the Tab Stops area on the Basic tab. The Paragraph Catalog will appear as follows:


    2. In the New Position box, type 5.5.
    3. Within the Alignment area, select the Right radio button, and click Continue. The Edit Tab Stop dialog box will appear as follows:



      If you receive a message from FrameMaker that the changes cannot be undone, click OK.

      The Paragraph Catalog will now show the new Tab Stop that was created in the previous step. Notice the listing for the tab in the following graphic:


    4. Create another tab using 5.1" in the New Position Box. Choose the left-aligned radio button, and choose a leader-dot style.
      The Edit Tab Stop dialog box should appear similar to the following:



    5. Click Continue, and then click Update All. The Paragraph Catalog will show the two new tab stops as follows:



      The document window will not show any change until you apply the Tab key to the line of text.
    6. Make sure the tab symbols are visible (select View > Text Symbols). Place the cursor immediately after the letter s in the word Headings, on the first line of text in the file mybookTOC.fm. The cursor should be placed as follows:


    7. Press the Tab key. The cursor will move to the right and the space will be filled with the leader dots that were chosen previously. The page number will be moved to the end of the leader dots as follows:


  3. Repeat the steps above to add a right tab to the Heading2TOC paragraph format. There is really no specific method for aligning the page numbers perfectly through Tab Stops. It is recommended that you experiment with the 5.1" L Tab Stop and increase it to 5.2" L with the Edit function. The result should look similar to the following:

  4. Place the cursor immediately after the letter g in the word Phrasing. Press the Tab key. The title Phrasing (designated as a Heading2 paragraph tag) now has the same leader dots and page number location as the title General Guidelines for Headings. The TOC will now appear similar to the following:



    Press the Tab key in a similar manner to all the other Heading2 lines of text. The paragraph tags designated as Heading3 will also need Tab Stops added. Refer to the previous steps in this section for instructions on creating Tab Stops for all of the Heading3 paragraph tags.

    When the Tab stops and leader lines have been added to all three tags (Heading1, Heading2, and Heading3), the TOC should look similar to the following:



  5. To see exactly where the tabs are placed, select View > Text Symbols. The TOC will appear as follows:


    Note: These changes affect the paragraph tags Heading1, Heading2 and Heading3 and are now part of this document file (mybook.book). Whenever you update the Table of Contents, it will retain this formatting.

    However, the tab key that you pressed and the movement of the cursor between the text and the page number are not part of the paragraph tag. If you want FrameMaker to automatically insert your tab symbols after a TOC update, you must modify the reference page.

To ensure that the dot-leader tabs are retained in updates of the TOC, modify the TOC reference page:

  1. Select View > Reference Pages.

  2. Scroll down to the TOC reference page. (The title of the reference page appears in the FrameMaker scroll bar.) The TOC reference page should appear as follows:

    status bar

  3. Place your cursor in the first paragraph between the <$paratext> and the <$pagenum> building blocks.

    This paragraph should be Heading3TOC. This may seem backwards because the items are listed in reverse order.

  4. Delete the space between the building blocks, and press the Tab key. The TOC reference for all Heading3TOC tags should appear as follows:
    TOC

  5. Repeat the steps above for Heading2TOC and Heading1TOC. When completed, the three tags should appear on the TOC reference page as follows:
    TOC

  6. Select View > Body Pages to return to the body pages, and then save your document. The TOC should appear as follows:
    TOC

  7. Select View > Text Symbols to hide the text symbols. The TOC should appear as follows:
    TOC

If you look closely at the preceding graphic, you will notice that the dot leaders of the first-level items do not align evenly with those of the second-level and third-level items.

There is no viable solution for the alignment problem involving dot leaders. However, you’ll notice that TOCs typically do not display page numbers or dot leaders for the chapter title. To make this change:

  1. Open the TOC file.

  2. Go to the TOC page of the reference pages. For the basics on reference pages, see the reference page tutorial.

  3. Find the Heading1TOC tag and delete the dots leaders and the <$pagenum> building block. Your results should like similar to the following:

    TOC



    After deleting the leader lines from the Heading1TOC line (shown above in blue) the TOC reference page should appear as follows:

    TOC
    Note:Just because the leader dots have been deleted in the TOC reference page does not automatically remove them from the TOC. The Body Pages will only reflect the removal of the leader dots after you have deleted the leader dots from the Tab Stops area of Paragraph Designer and then have updated the .book file. Delete the leader dots from the Tab Stops for the Heading1 paragraph tag, then update the .book file before proceeding.

    After updating the .book file, the view of the TOC in Body Pages will now appear as follows:

    TOC

    The chapter titles (shown above in blue) do not have leader dots or page numbers.

Displaying Chapter Numbers

To display chapter numbers in the table of contents and add some interesting format:

  1. Open the Character Designer. Create a character tag named green_bold that uses Arial 18pt Forest Green bold.

  2. In the Paragraph Designer for Heading1TOC, add a left tab of 0.5 inches.

  3. In the reference pages for the TOC, type <$chapnum> just before <$paratext>. Highlight it, and apply the green_bold character tag to it. The TOC reference page should appear as follows:

    TOC

  4. Between <$chapnum> and <$paratext> insert the 0.5" tab that was just created. The Reference Page may show the leader dots again for the Heading1TOC tag. Make sure that all leader dots are removed (deleted) from any Tab Stops that have been previously set for the Heading1 paragraph tag. Select View > Body Pages to see the TOC. The TOC should appear similar to the following: TOC
  5. Press the Tab key after each chapter number and the chapter title will move to the right 0.5". The results should look similar to the following:
    TOC

  6. To enter the word Chapter before the chapter number, select View > Reference Pages and scroll down to the TOC reference page. Type the word Chapter in front of the <$chapnum> tag. The reference page should appear as follows:
    TOC

After adding the word Chapter to the reference page, the TOC should appear as follows: TOC

Note: Using <n+> in the Numbering tab of the paragraph tag for Heading1TOC is an alternative the preceding steps. However, if you change numbering style (for example, uppercase letters as opposed to arabic numerals), the TOC will not update accordingly.

Inserting a Title

To insert a title for the table of contents:

  1. Place your cursor at the very beginning of the first paragraph. (Press the Home key to ensure you are at the beginning.)

  2. Press Enter.

  3. Return to the new line on text and type the word CONTENTS.

Apply the paragraph tag Title to this paragraph, and save your document. If the title of the TOC appears green, you must create a new charachter tag (black_bold or something similar) and apply the new charachter tag to the title. When completed, the TOC should appear as follows:
TOC

Switching the Order of Chapters

As your document content increases or is changed, you may have to re-organize the order of chapters.

To switch the order of chapters in the book:

  1. Highlight the file named lists.fm. While holding down the left mouse button, drag this file upward to the chapter 2 position (just underneath headings.fm.) Before it is moved, the file will be shown as follows:

    TOC
  2. Drag and drop the lists.fm file as shown below:

    TOC
  3. Click the Update Book icon as shown below:

    TOC
  4. The Update Book dialog box will automatically appear. Check to make sure all boxes are checked as shown below. Click Update to generate the new TOC that will reflect the change in chapter order. The Update Book dialog box should appear as follows:

    TOC


    Once the file named myBookTOC.fm has been updated, the new chapter position and page numbers will appear in the TOC as follows:

    TOC
    Note: The steps above are used in all instances of chapter re-ordering. However, if you must move a file (from the Chapter 2, 3 or 4 position, for example) in to the Chapter 1 position, there are more steps involved. Once you drag and drop the file in to Chapter 1 position, you must change its Chapter and Pagination settings to reflect that the file is now Chapter 1.

Updating the Table of Contents

Even if you do not switch the order of the chapters in the book, your document will go through changes and revisions as text or graphic elements are added or deleted. As your document changes, you must update your table of contents so that it remains current.

To update the table of contents:

  1. Select the main book file in the book window.
  2. Select the Update Book icon.
  3. When the Update Book dialog box appears, select those areas that you wish to update.
  4. Press update.

In this tutorial, you learned how to generate a table of contents, customize the formatting of the contents page, and update the table of contents.


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