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There are several ways to measure hydrocarbons from vehicles: total hydrocarbons; nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), which removes methane from the mass of emissions; VOCs, which is the measurement used for most SIP calculations; and NMOG, which includes all organic gases except methane. For the purposes of this discussion NMHC, NMOG, and VOCs are treated as equivalent.
Under EPAct, the following are considered alternative fuels: methanol, denatured ethanol and other alcohols; M85, E85, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; LPG; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; and electricity (including electricity from solar energy). Chapter 2158 of the TGC as amended by SB 200 only recognizes these alternative fuels: electricity, natural gas, LPG, ethanol, E85, methanol and M85.
By September 2000 (model year 2001), the NLEV Program requires automobile manufacturers to ensure that their new cars and trucks, with less than 6,500 lbs. GVWR, meet the LEV standards (on average) in all U.S. states. Although not required in Texas until September 2000, many automakers began selling a wide variety of gasoline and diesel-powered LEVs prior to that date. These have been available at the same price as their conventional counterparts. For many models, automakers have been selling only LEVs.
As stated previously, treatment standards for wastes identified as hazardous in 1984 became effective prior to 1993. In addition, treatment standards promulgated for all newly-regulated wastes in the Phase I and Phase II LDRs became effective prior to 1997. Therefore, the baseline data used to determine demand for commercial hazardous waste treatment capacity reflect management of hazardous waste according to these standards. However, the data do not reflect the management of waste for which treatment standards became effective after 1997 and only partially reflect the future management of waste for standards promulgated during 1997. In addition, although treatment standards were finalized for some wastes prior to 1997, including wastes regulated under the Phase III LDRs, the EPA made changes to the treatment standards following promulgation of the final rule that are not accurately reflected in the baseline data. Finally, although the EPA was expected to promulgate treatment standards for all Phase IV LDR wastes in the April 1997 final rule, promulgation of treatment standards for a subset of the Phase IV LDR wastes was delayed until 1998.
On April 8, 1996, the EPA promulgated concentration-based treatment standards for wastes associated with the production of carbamate pesticides. According to the regulations, generators are required to document compliance with concentration-based standards by demonstrating, through laboratory sampling, that treatment residuals meet the numerical constituent concentration standards. Due to the lack of laboratory standards for every carbamate constituent, generators were unable to certify treatment to the numerical standards. To address this problem, the EPA promulgated a one-year alternative technology-based standard for carbamate wastes on August 26, 1996. In contrast to concentration-based treatment standards, treatment by the specified technology is sufficient to demonstrate compliance with a technology-based treatment standard and no laboratory testing is required. Although a technology-based treatment standard existed, the numerical standard was still a treatment option for generators, provided they could demonstrate compliance through laboratory testing.
Based on information obtained from most generators surveyed, incineration meets the arsenic standard for K088 waste generated at their facilities and will continue to be used as the waste treatment technology in 2002. One commercial facility indicated that they were unable to meet the arsenic treatment standard specified in the September 1998 rule. In 1997, the commercial facility in question received K088 nonwastewaters and non-K088 wastewaters with elevated levels of arsenic for incineration. Operation of the incinerator resulted in the generation of scrubber wastewater and incinerator ash which required treatment prior to disposal. Because listed wastes carry through to all treatment residuals, the scrubber water and incinerator ash generated from management of K088 listed waste was also considered K088 listed waste. The scrubber water was managed at a wastewater treatment unit and the incinerator ash stabilized prior to disposal. Operation of the wastewater treatment unit resulted in the generation of wastewater filter cake that also carried the K088 listing. The elevated levels of arsenic in the non-K088 wastewaters incinerated at the facility resulted in elevated arsenic levels in all treatment residuals, including the K088 wastewater filter cake and incinerator ash.

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